- Research article
- Open Access
Screening and analysis of PoAkirin1 and two related genes in response to immunological stimulants in the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
© Yang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 27 February 2012
Accepted: 22 April 2013
Published: 7 May 2013
A member of the NF-κB signaling pathway, PoAkirin1, was cloned from a full-length cDNA library of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). The full-length cDNA comprises a 5′UTR of 202 bp, an open reading frame of 564 bp encoding a 187-amino-acid polypeptide and a 521-bp 3′UTR with a poly (A) tail. The putative protein has a predicted molecular mass of 21 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 9.22. Amino acid sequence alignments showed that PoAkirin1 was 99% identical to the Scophthalmus maximus Akirin protein (ADK27484). Yeast two-hybrid assays identified two proteins that interact with PoAkirin1: PoHEPN and PoC1q. The cDNA sequences of PoHEPN and PoC1q are 672 bp and 528 bp, respectively. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that bacteria could induce the expressions of PoAkirin1, PoHEPN and PoC1q. However, the responses of PoHEPN and PoC1q to the bacterial challenge were slower than that of PoAkirin1. To further study the function of PoAkirin1, recombinant PoAkirin1 and PoHEPN were expressed in Escherichia coli and would be used to verify the PoAkirin1-PoHEPN binding activity. These results identified two proteins that potentially interact with PoAkirin1 and that bacteria could induce their expression.
Biological processes are primarily performed and controlled by proteins. Therefore, clarifying the biological functions of proteins and their biological response mechanisms at the cellular level has become the main objective of proteomics research. Protein-protein interactions play a crucial role in various biological functions, including the formation of polymer structure, cell signal transduction, gene regulation, and metabolic pathways. In the post-genome sequencing era, protein interaction bridges the gap between prediction of the relationship between the proteins and the annotation of important genes. Thus, comprehensive analysis of protein-protein interactions is crucial for the full understanding of proteomics . Studies of protein-protein interactions not only can reveal the protein function on the molecular level but also are critical for understanding growth, development, differentiation and apoptosis and other crucial life activities, such studies also provide an important theoretical basis for disease mechanisms, disease treatment, disease prevention and drug development. The yeast two-hybrid system is a simple, but powerful, tool for detecting interactions between proteins and has been widely applied in many research areas. Recently, the yeast two-hybrid system has been used to study the large-scale interaction group in viruses, bacteria, Drosophila, and Caenorhabditis elegans [2–7].
Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a nuclear transcription factor that plays a key role in the regulation of apoptosis, viral replication, cancer, inflammation and the regulation of the expression of other related genes. In particular, NF-κB can be activated by a variety of stimulatory factors, including cytokines, lymphokines, UV, pharmaceutical preparations, and growth and stress factors. Such activation of NF-κB is part of the stress response. Although many members in the NF-κB signaling pathway have been identified in the past 20 years, a highly conserved protein Akirin, a member in the NF-κB signaling pathway, was recently identified in a study of the immune defense system at 2008 . This 20–25-kDa protein participates in the regulation of gene expression in many physiological processes, including the insect and mammalian innate immune response , cancer, insect reproduction and arthropods growth [9, 10]. Knockout of the Akirin gene led to embryonic lethality of mice and caused death or reduced growth in Drosophila, ticks, and nematodes. Consequently, Akirin is considered important in animal development . Akirin cannot directly combine with DNA, but interacts with the promoter or assisting factors that inhibit the transcription of genes encoding such proteins as the 14-3-3 protein and the helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Twist . Research on fish Akirin has been limited to the analysis of gene structure and function in several species [13–15]. Furthermore, Akirin’s interaction mechanism requires further investigation.
The Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is economically important and is widely cultured in Europe and China. However, flounder diseases have a serious impact on the aquaculture industry. Recently, to explore the molecular mechanisms of disease resistance and host-pathogen interactions in this species, Nam’s team [16, 17] constructed a cDNA library from an immune stimulated Japanese flounder. In addition, many immune-related genes including those encoding STAT, Nramp (natural resistance associated macrophage protein), MHCIIA and IIB (major histocompatibility complex class II) have also been investigated [18–20].
As an important protein required for NF-κB-dependent gene regulation in the immune response, little is known about Akirin’s function, interacting proteins, and regulation mechanism. In this study, we screened for Akirin interacting proteins and analyzed the interaction mechanism using the yeast two-hybrid system and a cDNA library of flounder immune tissue. Two possible interacting proteins were identified: PoHEPN (a higher eukaryotes and prokaryotes nucleotide-binding domain (HEPN) protein) and PoC1q (complement component C1, q subunit). The expression profiles of PoAkirin1, PoHEPN and PoC1q were also analyzed by a bacterial challenge test. This study increases our understanding of the Akirin family, and provides a theory of flounder immunity and disease resistance mechanisms.
The Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute’s animal care and use committee waived the need for ethical approval, as this is not required in China.
Japanese flounders with an average weight of 200 g were obtained from Haiyang Fisheries Company in Yantai and raised in a breeding tank with seawater (20°C). For cloning and tissue expression analysis, RNA was extracted from 13 tissues (brain, gill, skin, muscle, fin, heart, liver, spleen, eye, pituitary, kidney, head kidney, and intestine) from three individuals. For the bacterial challenge experiment, RNA was extracted from three tissues (liver, spleen, and kidney) from three individuals.
The bacterium Vibrio anguillarum, which is pathogenic in Japanese flounders, was cultured at 28°C to mid-logarithmic growth on 2216E medium, centrifuged to collect the bacteria and suspended in 0.9% saline [21, 22]. A cell counter was used to measure the number of bacteria in the suspension. A final concentration of 7 × 106 cfu of V. anguillarum was used for each injection, and 0.9% saline was used as the negative control. At 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h post-injection, three individuals from each time point were sacrificed and tissues were used for RNA extraction. For the negative control, tissues were taken 12 h after the saline injection.
Total RNA was isolated from 500 mg powdered fish tissues by homogenization in 5 mL TRIzol (Invitrogen), held at room temperature for 5 min. An aliquot of chloroform (1 mL) was added to each extract, and the resulting mixture was centrifuged (10 min, 13,000 g). The aqueous layer was transferred to a clean tube, and the RNA firstly precipitated by the addition of 3 mL isopropanol, and then pelleted by centrifugation (15 min, 13,000 g). The RNA pellet was washed twice with 75% ethanol and re-suspended in diethylpyrocarbonate-treated water. After DNA removal (Turbo DNA-free kit, Ambion), RNA integrity was detected using agarose gel electrophoresis, and the concentration of RNA was quantified spectrophotometrically.
Cloning of PoAkirin1
Based on the turbot Akirin1 gene sequence, primers (AKI-R-S1 and AKI-R-A1) were designed to amplify a conservative fragment. The 5′ and 3′ fragments of PoAkirin1 gene were amplified from the flounder full-length cDNA Library (a mix of liver, spleen and kidney).
Translation was performed using DNASTAR software. The conserved domain analysis and BLAST analysis was performed at http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi, containing blastn, blastp and tblastp. The PSORT II server (http://psort.ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp) was used to predict the putative nuclear localization signal (NLS). The alignment of Akirins from different species was performed using the ClustalW alignment program, and the phylogenetic tree was constructed on the basis of the proportion of the amino acid differences (p-distances) determined by the neighbor-joining method  using MEGA 3 software . The following proteins were used in the alignment: AAF50569 [Drosophila melanogaster], AAN12062 [D. melanogaster], ADK27484 [Scophthalmus maximus], BAI49701 [Marsupenaeus japonicus], ADK26453 [Gallus gallus], NP_001161992 [Salmo salar], ACV49724 [Oncorhynchus mykiss], ACV49723 [O. mykiss], ACV49722 [O. mykiss], ACV49721 [O. mykiss], ACV49720 [O. mykiss], ACV49719 [O. mykiss], ACV49718 [O. mykiss], ACV49717 [O. mykiss], ACV49716 [Salmo trutta], ACV49715 [S. trutta], ACV49714 [S. trutta], ACV49712 [S. trutta], ACV49710 [S. trutta], ACV49708 [S. salar], ACV49706 [S. salar], ACV49704 [S. salar], ACV49702 [S. salar], ACV49700 [Salvelinus alpinus], ACV49697 [S. alpinus], ACV49696 [S. alpinus], ADK39312 [Caligus rogercresseyi], NP_001107272 [Danio rerio], NP_001007187 [D. rerio], NP_988914 [Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis], NP_001085484 [Xenopus laevis], NP_001025225 [Rattus norvegicus], DAA31047 [Bos taurus], DAA26175 [B. taurus], XP_002715780 [Oryctolagus cuniculus], XP_002714617 [O. cuniculus], XP_002708555 [O. cuniculus], XP_002708554 [O. cuniculus], XP_002736520 [Saccoglossus kowalevskii], AAH97074 [D. rerio], AAH03291 [Mus musculus], AAH61612 [X. tropicalis], CAM16479 [M. musculus], AAI19746 [Homo sapiens], AAH05051 [H. sapiens], NP_001103557 [B. taurus], NP_001016080 [X. tropicalis], NP_001035003 [R. norvegicus], and AEO17042 [Ovis aries].
Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR)
Oligonucleotide primers used in this study
RT-PCR was carried out with a 1 μl cDNA sample, 10 μl SYBR® Premix Ex Taq™, 0.4 μl ROX Reference Dye II, 0.4 μl PCR forward/reverse primers (10 μM) and 7.8 μl nuclease-free water. The thermo-cycling conditions for the reaction were as follows: 95°C for 30 s, followed by 40 cycles of 95°C for 15 s and 61°C for 34 s. The reaction was carried out with triplicate with duplicates of each sample. Data (normalized Ct values) from the treated and control tissues templates were compared, and the 2-ΔΔCT method was selected for relative quantification. All data were expressed as the mean ± S.D. and analyzed by one-way analysis of variance to determine significant differences between samples, using SPSS 16.0. Values were considered statistically significant when P < 0.05 or P < 0.01.
Primer names and restriction sites used to construct the expression vectors
Yeast two-hybrid screening and mating assays
The pGBKT7-PoAkirin1 plasmid and DNA plasmids for cDNA library clones were individually transformed into Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Y2HGold and S. cerevisiae strain Y187, following the manufacturer's instructions in the Matchmaker™ Gold Yeast Two-Hybrid System User Manual. Approximately 1 × 107 library clones were screened by yeast mating with selection by growth for 3–5 days at 30°C on agar media lacking Leu and Trp, but with X-α-galactosidase and Aureobasidin A.
Recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli
The recombinant plasmids pGEX4T-1-PoAkirin1, pET30a-PoHEPN, pGEX4T-1, and pET30a were transformed into E. coli BL21(DE3) competent cells. After growth at 37°C, 1.0 mM IPTG was added to the transformed cells and incubation continued for 4 h. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis of total proteins was used to detect recombinant protein expression. No IPTG and cells transformed with pGEX-4 T-1 or pET30a and induced with IPTG were used as negative controls.
Western blotting analysis
The protein concentrations of the samples were determined using an Enhanced BCA Protein Assay Kit (Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology, China). Recombinant PoHEPN and PoAkirin1 were serially diluted (to 5 ng) and separated by 12% SDS-PAGE and transferred to a BioTrace NT Nitrocellulose Transfer Membrane (PALL, USA). The membranes were blocked and then incubated with a 1 μg/mL dilution of the primary antibody (monoclonal antibodies against His or GST (glutathione-S-transferase; Uscn Life Science Inc., Wuhan, China)). After washing, the membranes were incubated with the secondary antibody, horseradish peroxidase-conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG (1:1,000 dilutions) (Beyotime Institute of Biotechnology, China). Reactive proteins were detected using chemiluminescence (ECL Western Blotting Analysis System, Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc., IL, USA).
Cloning and sequence analysis of PoAkirin1
The PoAkirin1 cDNA encodes a putative protein of 187 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 21 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) of 9.22. A putative NLS was predicted in the N-terminus of the protein (Figure 2). The sequence of PoAkirin1 has been submitted to GenBank with the accession number KC190111.
Cloning and testing the bait construct for autoactivation
Yeast two-hybrid screening of a Japanese flounder library using bait pGBKT7-PoAkirin1
PoAkirin1 and PoHEPN proteins expression in E. coliand western blotting analysis
The recombinant plasmid pGEX-4T-1-Akirin and empty plasmid pGEX-4T-1 were transformed into E. coli. After induction by 1 mM IPTG for 4 h, bacterial lysates contained a protein band with a Mr of approximately 47 kDa, as anticipated. The lysates from bacteria transformed with the empty vector pGEX-4 T-1 and that had no IPTG induction did not contain this band (Figures 12A).
Sequence analysis and expression profile of PoAkirin1, PoHEPN, and Poc1q in various tissues
Yeast two-hybrid screening identified a 672-bp PoHEPN cDNA, which encoded a protein with a conserved HEPN domain at the C-terminus. The PoC1q gene was 528 bp, and analysis of the predicted protein indicated that it contained a conserved C1q domain at the C-terminus (Figures 7 and 8).
The HEPN domain and the sacsin protein
Spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (SACS) originated from the Lac-Saint-Jean region, Quebec, in Canada. The sacsin gene, the pathogenic gene of SACS, consists of nine exons, including a gigantic exon of over 12.8 kbp, which is the biggest exon in vertebrates. The gene encodes the sacsin protein, 65% certain to be located in the in the nucleus. By SMART  analysis, this protein has a recognizable DnaJ conserved domain, which is involved in the interaction of sacsin and Hsp70. The sacsin protein has the other three domains, including a UBQ region at the N-terminus, a HEPN domain at the C-terminus and another DnaJ region upstream of the HEPN domain.
The HEPN domain comprises 110 amino acid residues at C-terminus of the sacsin protein. In some invertebrates, bacteria and archaea, sacsin homologous proteins have this conserved domain.
Proteins with HEPN Domains are of three main types
A single HEPN domain. In many types of bacterium, the protein is usually followed by nucleotidyltransferase (NT), which is often in a different reading frame, with both ORFs overlapping. Only two exceptions were found: in the genomes of Pyrococcus furiosus and P. abyssi, the HEPN protein does not exist after the NT protein.
Two HEPN domains, the N-terminal NT domain and C-terminal HEPN domain.
HEPN proteins with a variety of conserved domains. These occur mainly in fish and mammals (monkeys, rats, mice and humans). The HEPN domain is located at the C terminus of the protein, adjacent to the DnaJ domain. However, conserved HEPN domains in lower eukaryotes have not been found .
The function of the HEPN domain in sacsin is not clear and is difficult to predict. HEPN has an important role in stabilizing nucleotide binding in complexes formed with the DnaJ domain and may be involved in determining the specificity. In diseases caused by sacsin mutations, sacsin mutant proteins have an incomplete DnaJ and HEPN conserved domain . Thus, the functions of HEPN and sacsin proteins require further study.
Complement component C1 is composed of three subunits: Clq, C1r and C1s . C1q, in C1, combined with immune complexes (IC) or other non-immune complexes, activates the classical pathway of complement activation. The C1q complement system, activated via the classic, bypass and mannose-binding lectin activation pathways, is composed of 30 types of protein. C1q has two functional units: a collagen-like region (CLR) near the N-terminus and a globular region (GR) at C-terminus. The CLR of C1q, with C1r and C1s, forms the C1 macromolecules (C1qC1r2C1s2). After the recognizing and binding to the GR through the IC, C1r and C1s are activated, thereby initiating the classical pathway. When complement is activated, a number of complement proteins can be cleaved into a variety of small cell surface fragments that are recognized by complement receptors. The primary function of the cell surface complement receptors is to promote the natural immune system to remove the foreign proteins, cell debris and microorganisms from the circulatory system [33, 34].
PoAkirin1 interacts with the N-terminus of PoHEPN
The HEPN conserved domain is predicted to locate in the 97–223 amino acids region of PoHEPN. Therefore, in the mutation experiment of PoHEPN segment deletion, we constructed three vectors comprising 1-96aa (pohepn1), 1-146aa (pohepn2), and 147-224aa (pohepn3), to verify whether PoHEPN can interact with PoAkirin1, where the binding site of PoHEPN with PoAkirin1 is, whether the interaction is associated with the conserved sequences, and whether the incomplete sequence of PoHEPN retains its binding activity. The result showed that the region of PoHEPN that binds with PoAkirin1 is located in the 1-96aa region, before the HEPN domain, and is unrelated with the HEPN domain. This suggests that the nucleoprotein PoAkirin1 has no transcriptional activation activity and must be combined with other proteins (transcription factors or other DNA-binding proteins), such as PoHEPN, which can bind DNA and initiate expression of immune-related genes as a complex. In this process, PoAkirin1 is likely to play a specific-enhancer role; however, this hypothesis should be tested by further experimentation.
PoAkirin1 and PoHEPN expression in E. coliand western blotting analysis
Prokaryotic fusion protein expression vectors for PoAkirin1 and PoHEPN were constructed and the recombinant PoHEPN and PoAkirin1 were successfully expressed in E. coli. The recombinant proteins were verified by western blotting. The recombinant proteins will be separated and purified. These recombinant proteins will be useful for further investigation of the function of PoAkirin1, such as to verify the binding activity of PoAkirin1 with PoHEPN, changes in protein expression levels, in situ hybridization, crystal structure, and protein activity.
Expression profiles of PoAkirin1, PoHEPN, PoC1q
To investigate the expression profile of PoAkirin1, the mRNA expressions of PoHEPN and PoC1q in different tissues from normal and V. anguillarum challenged fish were examined at different time points in three important immune organs: the kidney, spleen and liver. The results showed that PoAkirin1 was highly expressed in all the three tissues. The expression profile suggested that PoAkirin1 might be involved in growth, development and, especially, immunity. In most normal tissues, the expression of PoHEPN did not differ significantly. It was only slightly higher in the pituitary and skin than in other tissues. PoC1q was hardly expressed in muscle, slightly expressed in brain, gills, pituitary, skin, heart and eyes, but highly expressed in the liver, spleen, kidney and head kidney. In the liver and spleen, the expression level is significantly different compared with other tissues (p < 0.01). The expression in liver is 25 times higher than in the brain and 100 times higher than in the muscle. The reason for this tissue-specific expression may relate to their different functions. The sacsin protein has mainly been associated with nerve function [31, 35]. Therefore, although it is expressed in various tissues and organs, its expression is higher in the pituitary and the skin. However, for the C1q protein, as a subunit of complement C1, its distribution is mainly in the immune tissues, where it is involved in a series of signal transductions.
The expressions of the PoAkirin1, PoHEPN, and PoC1q gene were all induced by bacterial challenge, where the expression of PoAkirin1 reached its highest point reached after 12–24 h. Interestingly, however, the responses to the bacterial challenge of PoHEPN and PoC1q were slower than that of PoAkirin1, which may indicate that PoHEPN and PoC1q are located downstream in the response to bacterial challenge, and that the change in expression of PoAkirin1 leads directly to changes in the expressions of PoHEPN and PoC1q. However, the specific relationship between the upstream and downstream proteins in this signaling pathway requires further study.
In this paper, we cloned the Akirin1 homologous gene, PoAkirin1, from Japanese flounder and identified two proteins that potentially interact with PoAkirin1. The expression patterns of PoAkirin1 and the genes encoding the interacting proteins are closely associated with immunity. Bacteria can induce the expression of these genes; therefore, the function of this protein merits further investigation, particularly in the context of protecting fish populations.
This work was supported by grants from the State 863 High-Technology R&D Project of China (2012AA092203), the 973 National Basic Research Program of China (2010CB126303, 2012AA10A408), and the Taishan Scholar Project Fund of Shandong, China.
- Auerbach D, Thaminy S, Hottiger MO, Stagljar I: The post-genomic era of interactive proteomics: facts and perspectives. Proteomics. 2002, 2 (6): 611-623. 10.1002/1615-9861(200206)2:6<611::AID-PROT611>3.0.CO;2-Y.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ito T, Tashiro K, Muta S, Ozawa R, Chiba T, Nishizawa M, Yamamoto K, Kuhara S, Sakaki Y: Toward a protein-protein interaction map of the budding yeast: A comprehensive system to examine two-hybrid interactions in all possible combinations between the yeast proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2000, 97 (3): 1143-1147. 10.1073/pnas.97.3.1143.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Rain JC, Selig L, De Reuse H, Battaglia V, Reverdy C, Simon S, Lenzen G, Petel F, Wojcik J, Schachter V, et al: The protein-protein interaction map of Helicobacter pylori. Nature. 2001, 409 (6817): 211-215. 10.1038/35051615.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Terradot L, Durnell N, Li M, Ory J, Labigne A, Legrain P, Colland F, Waksman G: Biochemical characterization of protein complexes from the Helicobacter pylori protein interaction map: strategies for complex formation and evidence for novel interactions within type IV secretion systems. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2004, 3 (8): 809-819. 10.1074/mcp.M400048-MCP200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Giot L, Bader JS, Brouwer C, Chaudhuri A, Kuang B, Li Y, Hao YL, Ooi CE, Godwin B, Vitols E, et al: A protein interaction map of Drosophila melanogaster. Science. 2003, 302 (5651): 1727-1736. 10.1126/science.1090289.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ito T, Chiba T, Ozawa R, Yoshida M, Hattori M, Sakaki Y: A comprehensive two-hybrid analysis to explore the yeast protein interactome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2001, 98 (8): 4569-4574. 10.1073/pnas.061034498.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Li S, Armstrong CM, Bertin N, Ge H, Milstein S, Boxem M, Vidalain PO, Han JD, Chesneau A, Hao T, et al: A map of the interactome network of the metazoan C. elegans. Science. 2004, 303 (5657): 540-543. 10.1126/science.1091403.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Goto A, Matsushita K, Gesellchen V, El Chamy L, Kuttenkeuler D, Takeuchi O, Hoffmann JA, Akira S, Boutros M, Reichhart JM: Akirins are highly conserved nuclear proteins required for NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression in drosophila and mice. Nat Immunol. 2008, 9 (1): 97-104. 10.1038/ni1543.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- de la Fuente J, Almazan C, Blas-Machado U, Naranjo V, Mangold AJ, Blouin EF, Gortazar C, Kocan KM: The tick protective antigen, 4D8, is a conserved protein involved in modulation of tick blood ingestion and reproduction. Vaccine. 2006, 24 (19): 4082-4095. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2006.02.046.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Almazan C, Blas-Machado U, Kocan KM, Yoshioka JH, Blouin EF, Mangold AJ, de la Fuente J: Characterization of three Ixodes scapularis cDNAs protective against tick infestations. Vaccine. 2005, 23 (35): 4403-4416. 10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.04.012.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marshall A, Salerno MS, Thomas M, Davies T, Berry C, Dyer K, Bracegirdle J, Watson T, Dziadek M, Kambadur R, et al: Mighty is a novel promyogenic factor in skeletal myogenesis. Exp Cell Res. 2008, 314 (5): 1013-1029. 10.1016/j.yexcr.2008.01.004.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Komiya Y, Kurabe N, Katagiri K, Ogawa M, Sugiyama A, Kawasaki Y, Tashiro F: A novel binding factor of 14-3-3beta functions as a transcriptional repressor and promotes anchorage-independent growth, tumorigenicity, and metastasis. J Biol Chem. 2008, 283 (27): 18753-18764. 10.1074/jbc.M802530200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Macqueen DJ, Kristjansson BK, Johnston IA: Salmonid genomes have a remarkably expanded akirin family, coexpressed with genes from conserved pathways governing skeletal muscle growth and catabolism. Physiol Genomics. 2010, 42 (1): 134-148. 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00045.2010.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Macqueen DJ, Johnston IA: Evolution of the multifaceted eukaryotic akirin gene family. BMC Evol Biol. 2009, 9: 34-10.1186/1471-2148-9-34.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Yang CG, Wang XL, Wang L, Zhang B, Chen SL: A new Akirin1 gene in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): molecular cloning, characterization and expression analysis in response to bacterial and viral immunological challenge. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011, 30 (4–5): 1031-1041.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nam BH, Hirono I, Aoki T: Bulk isolation of immune response-related genes by expressed sequenced tags of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus leucocytes stimulated with Con A/PMA. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2003, 14 (5): 467-476. 10.1006/fsim.2002.0448.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nam BH, Yamamoto E, Hirono I, Aoki T: A survey of expressed genes in the leukocytes of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, infected with Hirame rhabdovirus. Dev Comp Immunol. 2000, 24 (1): 13-24. 10.1016/S0145-305X(99)00058-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Park EM, Kang JH, Seo JS, Kim G, Chung J, Choi TJ: Molecular cloning and expression analysis of the STAT1 gene from olive flounder. Paralichthys olivaceus. BMC Immunol. 2008, 9: 31-10.1186/1471-2172-9-31.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Chen SL, Wang ZJ, Xu MY, Gui JF: Molecular identification and expression analysis of natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp) cDNA from Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006, 20 (3): 365-373. 10.1016/j.fsi.2005.05.011.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xu TJ, Chen SL, Ji XS, Tian YS: MHC polymorphism and disease resistance to Vibrio anguillarum in 12 selective Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) families. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008, 25 (3): 213-221. 10.1016/j.fsi.2008.05.007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhang YX, Chen SL: Molecular identification, polymorphism, and expression analysis of major histocompatibility complex class IIA and B genes of turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Mar Biotechnol (NY). 2006, 8 (6): 611-623. 10.1007/s10126-005-6174-y.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen S, Xu M, Ji X, Yu G: Cloning and characterization of natural resistance associated macrophage protein (Nramp) cDNA from red sea bream (Chrysophrys major). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2004, 17: 305-313. 10.1016/j.fsi.2004.04.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saitou N, Nei M: The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees. Mol Biol Evol. 1987, 4 (4): 406-425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S: MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol. 2007, 24 (8): 1596-1599. 10.1093/molbev/msm092.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bustin SA, Benes V, Garson JA, Hellemans J, Huggett J, Kubista M, Mueller R, Nolan T, Pfaffl MW, Shipley GL, et al: The MIQE guidelines: minimum information for publication of quantitative real-time PCR experiments. Clin Chem. 2009, 55 (4): 611-622. 10.1373/clinchem.2008.112797.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zheng WJ, Sun L: Evaluation of housekeeping genes as references for quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011, 30 (2): 638-645. 10.1016/j.fsi.2010.12.014.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Martin-Antonio B, Jimenez-Cantizano RM, Salas-Leiton E, Infante C, Manchado M: Genomic characterization and gene expression analysis of four hepcidin genes in the redbanded seabream (Pagrus auriga). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009, 26 (3): 483-491. 10.1016/j.fsi.2009.01.012.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kurobe T, Yasuike M, Kimura T, Hirono I, Aoki T: Expression profiling of immune-related genes from Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus kidney cells using cDNA microarrays. Dev Comp Immunol. 2005, 29 (6): 515-523. 10.1016/j.dci.2004.10.005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Letunic I, Goodstadt L, Dickens NJ, Doerks T, Schultz J, Mott R, Ciccarelli F, Copley RR, Ponting CP, Bork P: Recent improvements to the SMART domain-based sequence annotation resource. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002, 30 (1): 242-244. 10.1093/nar/30.1.242.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Grynberg M, Erlandsen H, Godzik A: HEPN: a common domain in bacterial drug resistance and human neurodegenerative proteins. Trends Biochem Sci. 2003, 28 (5): 224-226. 10.1016/S0968-0004(03)00060-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Engert JC, Berube P, Mercier J, Dore C, Lepage P, Ge B, Bouchard JP, Mathieu J, Melancon SB, Schalling M, et al: ARSACS, a spastic ataxia common in northeastern Quebec, is caused by mutations in a new gene encoding an 11.5-kb ORF. Nat Genet. 2000, 24 (2): 120-125. 10.1038/72769.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lepow IH, Naff GB, Todd EW, Pensky J, Hinz CF: Chromatographic resolution of the first component of human complement into three activities. J Exp Med. 1963, 117: 983-1008. 10.1084/jem.117.6.983.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Kishore U, Leigh LE, Eggleton P, Strong P, Perdikoulis MV, Willis AC, Reid KB: Functional characterization of a recombinant form of the C-terminal, globular head region of the B-chain of human serum complement protein, C1q. Biochem J. 1998, 333 (Pt 1): 27-32.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Lu J, Wu X, Teh BK: The regulatory roles of C1q. Immunobiology. 2007, 212 (4–5): 245-252.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bouchard JP, Barbeau A, Bouchard R, Bouchard RW: Autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay. Can J Neurol Sci. 1978, 5 (1): 61-69.PubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.