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  1. Content type: Research article

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent survival factor for many cell types, and its expression is widespread both within and outside of the nervous system. The regulation of GDNF expres...

    Authors: Kentaro Oh-hashi, Yoko Hirata and Kazutoshi Kiuchi

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2012 13:2

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  2. Content type: Research article

    SPO11 is a key protein for promoting meiotic recombination, by generating chromatin locus- and timing-specific DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The DSB activity of SPO11 was shown by genetic analyses, but whet...

    Authors: Yoshinori Shingu, Takeshi Tokai, Yasuo Agawa, Kentaro Toyota, Selina Ahmed, Makiko Kawagishi-Kobayashi, Akira Komatsu, Tsutomu Mikawa, Masa-Toshi Yamamoto, Kyo Wakasa, Takehiko Shibata and Kohji Kusano

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2012 13:1

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  3. Content type: Research article

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, is the most devastating rice pest in many areas throughout Asia. The reproductive system of female N. lugens consists of a pair of ovaries with 24-33 ovarioles per...

    Authors: Xiaolin Dong, Yifan Zhai, Jianqing Zhang, Zhongxiang Sun, Jing Chen, Jie Chen and Wenqing Zhang

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:53

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  4. Content type: Research article

    DLK2 is an EGF-like membrane protein, closely related to DLK1, which is involved in adipogenesis. Both proteins interact with the NOTCH1 receptor and are able to modulate its activation. The expression of the ...

    Authors: Samuel Rivero, Almudena Ruiz-García, María JM Díaz-Guerra, Jorge Laborda and José J García-Ramírez

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:52

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  5. Content type: Research article

    The S. cerevisiae MAPKKK Ste11p, a homologue of mammalian MEKK1, regulates three MAPK cascades for mating, invasive growth and osmotic stress and provides functions that are additive with the cell wall integrity ...

    Authors: Xiaoyan Wang, Mark A Sheff, David M Simpson and Elaine A Elion

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:51

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  6. Content type: Research article

    All sequenced genomes of representatives of the Francisella genus contain two rpoA genes, which encode non-identical RNA polymerase (RNAP) subunits, α1 and α2. In all other bacteria studied to date, a dimer of id...

    Authors: Damir Mukhamedyarov, Kira S Makarova, Konstantin Severinov and Konstantin Kuznedelov

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:50

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  7. Content type: Methodology article

    The processes that compose expression of a given gene are far more complex than previously thought presenting unprecedented conceptual and mechanistic challenges that require development of new tools. Chromati...

    Authors: Jingjing Yu, Qinghua Feng, Yusong Ruan, Radko Komers, Nancy Kiviat and Karol Bomsztyk

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:49

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Staufen2 (Stau2), a double-stranded RNA-binding protein, is a component of neuronal RNA granules, which are dendritic mRNA transport machines. Although Stau2 is thought to be involved in the dendritic targetin...

    Authors: Takashi Miki, Yasunao Kamikawa, Sadamu Kurono, Yuka Kaneko, Jun Katahira and Yoshihiro Yoneda

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:48

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Defensins are a well known family of cationic antibacterial peptides (AMPs) isolated from fungi, plants, insects, mussels, birds, and various mammals. They are predominantly active against gram (+) bacteria, a...

    Authors: AlaaEddeen M Seufi, Elsayed E Hafez and Fatma H Galal

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:47

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  10. Content type: Research article

    The SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling factors have the ability to remodel nucleosomes and play essential roles in key developmental processes. SWI/SNF complexes contain one subunit with ATPase activity, which in Droso...

    Authors: Johan Waldholm, Zhi Wang, David Brodin, Anu Tyagi, Simei Yu, Ulrich Theopold, Ann Kristin Östlund Farrants and Neus Visa

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:46

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  11. Content type: Research article

    The first telomerase-associated protein (Est1) was isolated in yeast due to its essential role in telomere maintenance. The human counterparts EST1A, EST1B, and EST1C perform diverse functions in nonsense-medi...

    Authors: David CF Sealey, Aleksandar D Kostic, Catherine LeBel, Fiona Pryde and Lea Harrington

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:45

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  12. Content type: Research article

    CD164 (also known as MGC-24v or endolyn) is a sialomucin which has been suggested to participate in regulating the proliferation, cell adhesion and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. C...

    Authors: Jingqun Tang, Zhaohui Luo, Guangqian Zhou, Chao Song, Fenglei Yu, Juanjuan Xiang and Gang Li

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:44

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  13. Content type: Research article

    DNA polymerase III, the main enzyme responsible for bacterial DNA replication, is composed of three sub-assemblies: the polymerase core, the β-sliding clamp, and the clamp loader. During replication, single-st...

    Authors: Sirine El Houry Mignan, Gregor Witte, Natalie Naue and Ute Curth

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:43

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  14. Content type: Research article

    The halophilic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum expresses bacteriorhodopsin, a retinal-protein that allows photosynthetic growth. Transcription of the bop (b acterioop sin) gene is controlled by two transcription...

    Authors: Valery Tarasov, Rita Schwaiger, Katarina Furtwängler, Mike Dyall-Smith and Dieter Oesterhelt

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:42

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  15. Content type: Research article

    It is known that retinoid receptor function is attenuated during T cell activation, a phenomenon that involves actin remodeling, suggesting that actin modification may play a role in such inhibition. Here we h...

    Authors: Mohammad Ishaq, Bor-Ruei Lin, Marjorie Bosche, Xin Zheng, Jun Yang, Dawei Huang, Richard A Lempicki and Ven Natarajan

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:41

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Molecular Biology 2012 13:14

  16. Content type: Research article

    In response to infection, viral genomes are processed by Dicer-like (DCL) ribonuclease proteins into viral small RNAs (vsRNAs) of discrete sizes. vsRNAs are then used as guides for silencing the viral genome. ...

    Authors: Tatiane F Silva, Elisson AC Romanel, Roberto RS Andrade, Laurent Farinelli, Magne Østerås, Cécile Deluen, Régis L Corrêa, Carlos EG Schrago and Maite FS Vaslin

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:40

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  17. Content type: Research article

    The vomeronasal organ (VNO) detects pheromones via two large families of vomeronasal receptors: vomeronasal receptor 1 (V1R) and vomeronasal receptor 2 (V2R). Both VRs have a common receptor activation cascade...

    Authors: Stephen Frankenberg, Nanette Y Schneider, Terrence P Fletcher, Geoffrey Shaw and Marilyn B Renfree

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:39

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) is an antiseptic polymer that is mainly used for cleaning hospitals and pools and combating Acantamoeba infection. Its fungicide activity was recently shown by its lethal effect...

    Authors: Carolina Elsztein, Rodrigo M de Lucena and Marcos A de Morais Jr

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:38

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  19. Content type: Research article

    The RNA binding protein, DEAD END (DND1), is essential for maintaining viable germ cells in vertebrates. It is also a testicular germ cell tumor susceptibility factor in mice. DND1 has been shown to interact w...

    Authors: Rui Zhu, Michelina Iacovino, Elisabeth Mahen, Michael Kyba and Angabin Matin

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:37

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Reference genes with stable expression are required to normalize expression differences of target genes in qPCR experiments. Several procedures and companion software have been proposed to find the most stable...

    Authors: Magdalena Serrano, Natalia Moreno-Sánchez, Carmen González, Ane Marcos-Carcavilla, Mario Van Poucke, Jorge H Calvo, Judit Salces, Jaime Cubero and María J Carabaño

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:36

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Expressed short hairpin RNAs (shRNA) used in mammalian RNA interference (RNAi) are often designed around a specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) core. Whilst there are algorithms to aid siRNA design, hairpin-...

    Authors: Glen J Mcintyre, Yi-Hsin Yu, Mehnaaz Lomas and Gregory C Fanning

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:34

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  22. Content type: Review

    DNA cruciforms play an important role in the regulation of natural processes involving DNA. These structures are formed by inverted repeats, and their stability is enhanced by DNA supercoiling. Cruciform struc...

    Authors: Václav Brázda, Rob C Laister, Eva B Jagelská and Cheryl Arrowsmith

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:33

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Core promoters are cis-regulatory modules to which bind the basal transcriptional machinery and which participate in the regulation of transcription initiation. Although core promoters have not been extensively i...

    Authors: Adriana C Garcia, Daniel LG Gitaí, Fernanda C Humann, Maria L Paçó-Larson and Nadia Monesi

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:32

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Improving the treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) will depend on the development of better biomarkers for predicting disease progression and aiding the design of appropriate therapies. One such marker may ...

    Authors: Naohisa Takaoka, Tatsuya Takayama, Takumi Teratani, Takayuki Sugiyama, Soichi Mugiya and Seiichiro Ozono

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:31

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Transient Receptor Potential Canonical 1 (TRPC1) is a widely-expressed mammalian cationic channel with functional effects that include stimulation of cardiovascular remodelling. The initial aim of this study w...

    Authors: Alexandra M Dedman, Yasser Majeed, Sarka Tumova, Fanning Zeng, Bhaskar Kumar, Christopher Munsch, Alan N Bateson, Jürgen Wittmann, Hans-Martin Jäck, Karen E Porter and David J Beech

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:30

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  26. Content type: Research article

    CGGBP1 is a CGG-triplet repeat binding protein, which affects transcription from CGG-triplet-rich promoters such as the FMR1 gene and the ribosomal RNA gene clusters. Earlier, we reported some previously unkno...

    Authors: Umashankar Singh, Pernilla Roswall, Lene Uhrbom and Bengt Westermark

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:28

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  27. Content type: Research article

    During functional studies on the rat stress-inducible Hspa1b (hsp70.1) gene we noticed that some liposome-based DNA carriers, which are used for transfection, induce its promoter activity. This observation concer...

    Authors: Anna Fiszer-Kierzkowska, Natalia Vydra, Aleksandra Wysocka-Wycisk, Zuzana Kronekova, Michał Jarząb, Katarzyna Marta Lisowska and Zdzisław Krawczyk

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:27

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The control of intracellular vesicle trafficking is an ideal target to weigh the role of alternative splicing in shaping genomes to make cells. Alternative splicing has been reported for several Soluble N-ethylma...

    Authors: Marcella Vacca, Lara Albania, Floriana Della Ragione, Andrea Carpi, Valeria Rossi, Maria Strazzullo, Nicola De Franceschi, Ornella Rossetto, Francesco Filippini and Maurizio D'Esposito

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:26

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  29. Content type: Research article

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an evolutionary conserved adaptive reaction for increasing cell survival under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress conditions. X-box-binding protein-1 (Xbp1) is a key trans...

    Authors: Jin-Yu Zhang, Kyu-Sun Lee, Ji-Su Kim, Bong-Seok Song, Dong-Il Jin, Deog-Bon Koo and Kweon Yu

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:25

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Group II intron splicing proceeds through two sequential transesterification reactions in which the 5' and 3'-exons are joined together and the lariat intron is released. The intron-encoded protein (IEP) assis...

    Authors: Antonio Barrientos-Durán, Isabel Chillón, Francisco Martínez-Abarca and Nicolás Toro

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:24

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  31. Content type: Research article

    The NCI-60 is a collection of tumor cell lines derived from a variety of human adult cancer tissue types and is commonly used for genetic analysis and screening of potential chemotherapeutic agents. We wanted ...

    Authors: Dawn M Stults, Michael W Killen, Brent J Shelton and Andrew J Pierce

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:23

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play pivotal roles in mediating biotic and abiotic stress responses. In plants, MAPKs are classified into four major groups (A-D) according to their sequence ho...

    Authors: Jing Shi, Liang Zhang, Hailong An, Changai Wu and Xingqi Guo

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:22

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  33. Content type: Research article

    Gene expression in Escherichia coli is regulated by several mechanisms. We measured in single cells the expression level of a single copy gene coding for green fluorescent protein (GFP), integrated into the genom...

    Authors: Olli-Pekka Smolander, Meenakshisundaram Kandhavelu, Henrik Mannerström, Eero Lihavainen, Shanmugapriya Kalaichelvan, Shannon Healy, Olli Yli-Harja, Matti Karp and Andre S Ribeiro

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:21

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) is an alternative splicing factor containing four CCCH Zinc fingers (ZnFs). The sequestration of MBNL1 by expanded CUG and CCUG repeats is a major component in causing myotonic dystr...

    Authors: Danielle Cass, Rachel Hotchko, Paul Barber, Kimberly Jones, Devika P Gates and J Andrew Berglund

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:20

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  35. Content type: Research article

    Argonaute, the core component of the RNA induced silencing complex (RISC), binds to mature miRNAs and regulates gene expression at transcriptional or post-transcriptional level. We recently reported that Argon...

    Authors: Grace S Tan, Barry G Garchow, Xuhang Liu, David Metzler and Marianthi Kiriakidou

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:19

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Accurate interpretation of quantitative PCR (qPCR) data requires normalization using constitutively expressed reference genes. Ribosomal RNA is often used as a reference gene for transcriptional studies in E. col...

    Authors: Kang Zhou, Lihan Zhou, Qing 'En Lim, Ruiyang Zou, Gregory Stephanopoulos and Heng-Phon Too

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:18

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  37. Content type: Research article

    Escherichia coli RecA plays a crucial role in recombinational processes, the induction of SOS responses and mutagenic lesion bypasses. It has also been demonstrated that RecA protein is indispensable when it come...

    Authors: Marta Wanarska, Beata Krawczyk, Piotr Hildebrandt and Józef Kur

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:17

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  38. Content type: Research article

    SXT is an integrating conjugative element (ICE) originally isolated from Vibrio cholerae, the bacterial pathogen that causes cholera. It houses multiple antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes on its ca. 100 ...

    Authors: Wen-yang Chen, John WS Ho, Jian-dong Huang and Rory M Watt

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:16

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  39. Content type: Research article

    Poor reproductive maturation in captive male broodstock of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is one of the serious problems to the farming industries. Without genome sequence, EST libraries of P. monodon w...

    Authors: Rungnapa Leelatanawit, Umaporn Uawisetwathana, Sirawut Klinbunga and Nitsara Karoonuthaisiri

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:15

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  40. Content type: Methodology article

    Numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) have heterogeneous ends resulting from imprecise cleavages by processing nucleases and from various non-templated nucleotide additions. The scale of miRNA end-heterogeneity is best ...

    Authors: Edyta Koscianska, Julia Starega-Roslan, Lukasz J Sznajder, Marta Olejniczak, Paulina Galka-Marciniak and Wlodzimierz J Krzyzosiak

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:14

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  41. Content type: Research article

    The elongation factor GreA binds to RNA polymerase and modulates transcriptional pausing. Some recent research suggests that the primary role of GreA may not be to regulate gene expression, but rather, to prom...

    Authors: Anthony R Poteete

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:12

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  42. Content type: Research article

    To incorporate genomics data into environmental assessments a mechanistic perspective of interactions between chemicals and induced biological processes needs to be developed. Since chemical compounds with str...

    Authors: Muriel E de Boer, Sandra Berg, Martijn JTN Timmermans, Johan T den Dunnen, Nico M van Straalen, Jacintha Ellers and Dick Roelofs

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:11

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  43. Content type: Research article

    Smoothelin-like 1 (SMTNL1, also known as CHASM) plays a role in promoting relaxation as well as adaptive responses to exercise, pregnancy and sexual development in smooth and skeletal muscle. Investigations of Sm...

    Authors: Annegret Ulke-Lemée, Sara R Turner, Saad H Mughal, Meredith A Borman, Robert J Winkfein and Justin A MacDonald

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:10

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  44. Content type: Research article

    The MAD1 protein, a member of the MYC/MAX/MAD network of transcriptional regulators, controls cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. MAD1 functions as a transcriptional repressor, one direct target...

    Authors: Nadine Hein, Kan Jiang, Christian Cornelissen and Bernhard Lüscher

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:9

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  45. Content type: Research article

    Reference genes are frequently used to normalise mRNA levels between different samples. The expression level of these genes, however, may vary between tissues or cells and may change under certain circumstance...

    Authors: Li Li, Yan Yan, Haoxiang Xu, Tao Qu and Baoxi Wang

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:8

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  46. Content type: Research article

    The Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera, is among the most promising species to unravel the suites of genes underling the density-dependent shift from shy and cryptic solitarious behaviour to the h...

    Authors: Marie-Pierre Chapuis, Donya Tohidi-Esfahani, Tim Dodgson, Laurence Blondin, Fleur Ponton, Darron Cullen, Stephen J Simpson and Gregory A Sword

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:7

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  47. Content type: Research article

    DICER is an RNase III family endoribonuclease that processes precursor microRNAs (pre-miRNAs) and long double-stranded RNAs, generating microRNA (miRNA) duplexes and short interfering RNA duplexes with 20~23 n...

    Authors: Yoshinari Ando, Yoshiko Maida, Ayako Morinaga, Alexander M Burroughs, Ryuichiro Kimura, Joe Chiba, Harukazu Suzuki, Kenkichi Masutomi and Yoshihide Hayashizaki

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2011 12:6

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