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  1. MicroRNAs, small non-encoding RNAs that post-transcriptionally modulate expression of their target genes, have been implicated as critical regulatory molecules in endothelial cells.

    Authors: Wei-Long Jiang, Yu-Feng Zhang, Qing-Qing Xia, Jian Zhu, Xin Yu, Tao Fan and Feng Wang
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2015 16:11
  2. The editors of BMC Molecular Biology would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 15 (2014).

    Authors: Tim Sands
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2015 16:10
  3. Ras pathway mutation leads to induction and Erk phosphorylation and activation of the Ets1 transcription factor. Ets1 in turn induces cyclin E and cyclin dependent kinase (cdk) 2 to drive cell cycle progressio...

    Authors: Kevin C Dean, Li Huang, Yao Chen, Xiaoqin Lu and Yongqing Liu
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2015 16:8
  4. Box C/D snoRNPs are responsible for rRNA methylation and processing, and are formed by snoRNAs and four conserved proteins, Nop1, Nop56, Nop58 and Snu13. The snoRNP assembly is a stepwise process, involving ot...

    Authors: Marcela B Prieto, Raphaela C Georg, Fernando A Gonzales-Zubiate, Juliana S Luz and Carla C Oliveira
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2015 16:7
  5. Tendons are dense connective tissues subjected periodically to mechanical stress upon which complex responsive mechanisms are activated. These mechanisms affect not only the development of these tissues but al...

    Authors: Cvetan Popov, Martina Burggraf, Ludwika Kreja, Anita Ignatius, Matthias Schieker and Denitsa Docheva
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2015 16:6
  6. With the introduction of the first high-throughput qPCR instrument on the market it became possible to perform thousands of reactions in a single run compared to the previous hundreds. In the high-throughput r...

    Authors: Vlasta Korenková, Justin Scott, Vendula Novosadová, Marie Jindřichová, Lucie Langerová, David Švec, Monika Šídová and Robert Sjöback
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2015 16:5
  7. The Wnt signaling pathway is involved in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation during skeletal muscle development. Secreted frizzled-related proteins (SFRPs), such as SFRP1, function as inhibitors...

    Authors: Yalan Yang, Wei Sun, Ruiqi Wang, Chuzhao Lei, Rong Zhou, Zhonglin Tang and Kui Li
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2015 16:4
  8. Ribosomes and functional complexes of them have been analyzed at the atomic level. Far less is known about the dynamic assembly and degradation events that define the half-life of ribosomes and guarantee their...

    Authors: Rainer Nikolay, Renate Schloemer, Silke Mueller and Elke Deuerling
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2015 16:3
  9. ATPase/Helicases and nucleases play important roles in homologous recombination repair (HRR). Many of the mechanistic details relating to these enzymes and their function in this fundamental and complicated DN...

    Authors: Qihong Huang, Linlin Liu, Junfeng Liu, Jinfeng Ni, Qunxin She and Yulong Shen
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2015 16:2
  10. The glomerular podocyte is a highly specialized cell type with the ability to ultrafilter blood and support glomerular capillary pressure. However, little is known about the genetic programs leading to this fu...

    Authors: Shuang Yang, Lingjia Liu, Pengjuan Xu and Zhuo Yang
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2015 16:1
  11. Transposable elements (TEs, transposons) are mobile genetic DNA sequences. TEs can insert copies of themselves into new genomic locations and they have the capacity to multiply. Therefore, TEs have been crucia...

    Authors: Guang-Hua Luo, Xiao-Huan Li, Zhao-Jun Han, Hui-Fang Guo, Qiong Yang, Min Wu, Zhi-Chun Zhang, Bao-Sheng Liu, Lu Qian and Ji-Chao Fang
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:28
  12. Premature aging syndromes recapitulate many aspects of natural aging and provide an insight into this phenomenon at a molecular and cellular level. The progeria syndromes appear to cause rapid aging through di...

    Authors: Nicolas Paquet, Joseph K Box, Nicholas W Ashton, Amila Suraweera, Laura V Croft, Aaron J Urquhart, Emma Bolderson, Shu-Dong Zhang, Kenneth J O’Byrne and Derek J Richard
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:27
  13. Comprehensive understanding of mechanisms of genome functions requires identification of molecules interacting with genomic regions of interest in vivo. We previously developed the insertional chromatin immunopre...

    Authors: Toshitsugu Fujita and Hodaka Fujii
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:26
  14. Mice and humans produce chitinase-like proteins (CLPs), which are highly homologous to chitinases but lack chitinolytic activity. Mice express primarily three CLPs, including breast regression protein-39 (BRP-...

    Authors: Misa Ohno, Yuta Kida, Masayoshi Sakaguchi, Yasusato Sugahara and Fumitaka Oyama
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:23
  15. The GBGT1 gene encodes the globoside alpha-1,3-N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 1. This enzyme catalyzes the last step in the multi-step biosynthesis of the Forssman (Fs) antigen, a pentaglycosyl ceramide of the...

    Authors: Francis Jacob, Megan P Hitchins, André Fedier, Kevin Brennan, Sheri Nixdorf, Neville F Hacker, Robyn Ward and Viola A Heinzelmann-Schwarz
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:24
  16. The transcription factor Pax8 is expressed during thyroid development and is involved in the morphogenesis of the thyroid gland and maintenance of the differentiated phenotype. In particular, Pax8 has been shown ...

    Authors: Maria Grazia Filippone, Tina Di Palma, Valeria Lucci and Mariastella Zannini
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:21
  17. Wingless gene (Wg) plays a fundamental role in regulating the segment polarity and wing imaginal discs of insects. The rice planthoppers have an obvious wing dimorphism, and the long- and short-winged forms exist...

    Authors: Ju-Long Yu, Zhi-Fang An and Xiang-Dong Liu
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:20
  18. Trans-translation is catalyzed by ribonucleprotein complexes composed of SmpB protein and transfer-messenger RNA. They release stalled ribosomes from truncated mRNAs and tag defective proteins for proteolytic deg...

    Authors: Iwona K Wower, Christian Zwieb and Jacek Wower
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:19
  19. Reverse gyrases are DNA topoisomerases characterized by their unique DNA positive-supercoiling activity. Sulfolobus solfataricus, like most Crenarchaeota, contains two genes each encoding a reverse gyrase. We sho...

    Authors: Mohea Couturier, Anna H Bizard, Florence Garnier and Marc Nadal
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:18
  20. Human MutY glycosylase homolog (hMYH), a component of the base excision repair pathway, is responsible for the generation of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites. Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) is a heterotrimeric protein comp...

    Authors: Lia Agustina, Soo-Hyun Hahm, Se Hee Han, An Hue Vy Tran, Ji Hyung Chung, Jong-Hwa Park, Jin Woo Park and Ye Sun Han
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:17
  21. The plant pathogenic and saprophytic fungus Fusarium avenaceum causes considerable in-field and post-field losses worldwide due to its infections of a wide range of different crops. Despite its significant impact...

    Authors: Lisette Quaade Sørensen, Erik Lysøe, Jesper Erup Larsen, Paiman Khorsand-Jamal, Kristian Fog Nielsen and Rasmus John Normand Frandsen
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:15
  22. As a novel candidate metastasis suppressor gene, Nasopharyngeal carcinoma-associated gene 6 (NGX6) is involved in cellular growth, cell cycle progression and tumor angiogenesis. Previous studies have shown tha...

    Authors: Minji Liu, Xiaoyan Wang, Ya Peng, Shourong Shen and Guiyuan Li
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:14
  23. The past decade has seen the emergence of several molecular tools that render possible modification of cellular functions through accurate and easy addition, removal, or exchange of genomic DNA sequences. Amon...

    Authors: Alexandre Juillerat, Marine Beurdeley, Julien Valton, Séverine Thomas, Gwendoline Dubois, Mikhail Zaslavskiy, Jérome Mikolajczak, Fabian Bietz, George H Silva, Aymeric Duclert, Fayza Daboussi and Philippe Duchateau
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:13
  24. DZIP1 (DAZ-interacting protein 1) has been described as a component of the Hh signaling pathway with a putative regulatory role in ciliogenesis. DZIP1 interacts with DAZ RNA binding proteins in embryonic stem ...

    Authors: Patrícia ShigunovShigunov, Jose Sotelo-Silveira, Marco Augusto Stimamiglio, Crisciele Kuligovski, Florencia Irigoín, Jose L Badano, David Munroe, Alejandro Correa and Bruno Dallagiovanna
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:12
  25. Human mesenchymal stromal cells from the bone marrow (BMSCs) are widely used as experimental regenerative treatment of ischemic heart disease, and the first clinical trials using adipose-derived stromal cells ...

    Authors: Josefine Tratwal, Bjarke Follin, Annette Ekblond, Jens Kastrup and Mandana Haack-Sørensen
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:11
  26. Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) are a group of master regulators of gene expression conserved from flies to human. However, scant information is available on either the mechanisms or functional impact of the coupl...

    Authors: Ezequiel Calvo, Adrienne Grzenda, Gwen Lomberk, Angela Mathison, Juan Iovanna and Raul Urrutia
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:10
  27. YBX3/ZONAB/CSDA is an epithelial-specific transcription factor acting in the density-based switch between proliferation and differentiation. Our laboratory reported overexpression of YBX3 in clear cell renal c...

    Authors: Sébastien Dupasquier, Anne-Sophie Delmarcelle, Etienne Marbaix, Jean-Pierre Cosyns, Pierre J Courtoy and Christophe E Pierreux
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:9
  28. Krüppel-like Factor 3 (KLF3) is a broadly expressed zinc-finger transcriptional repressor with diverse biological roles. During erythropoiesis, KLF3 acts as a feedback repressor of a set of genes that are acti...

    Authors: Alister PW Funnell, Douglas Vernimmen, Wooi F Lim, Ka Sin Mak, Beeke Wienert, Gabriella E Martyn, Crisbel M Artuz, Jon Burdach, Kate GR Quinlan, Douglas R Higgs, Emma Whitelaw, Richard CM Pearson and Merlin Crossley
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:8
  29. Many studies of the eukaryotic transcription mechanism and its regulation rely on in vitro assays. Conventional RNA polymerase II transcription assays are based on radioactive labelling of the newly synthesized R...

    Authors: Cristina Voss, Brita Schmitt, Susanne Werner-Simon, Christian Lutz, Werner Simon and Jan Anderl
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:7
  30. Homologous recombination mediated gene targeting is still too inefficient to be applied extensively in genomics and gene therapy. Although sequence-specific nucleases could greatly stimulate gene targeting eff...

    Authors: Alvaro Galli and Tiziana Cervelli
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:5
  31. In vertebrates, rod photoreceptor-specific gene expression is regulated by the large Maf and Pax-like transcription factors, Nrl/LNrl and Crx/Otx5. The ubiquitous occurrence of their target DNA binding sites t...

    Authors: Sarah E Reks, Vera McIlvain, Xinming Zhuo and Barry E Knox
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:4
  32. GATA transcription factors are essential for self-renewal of the small intestinal epithelium. Gata4 is expressed in the proximal 85% of small intestine while Gata6 is expressed throughout the length of small inte...

    Authors: Boaz E Aronson, Kelly A Stapleton, Laurens ATM Vissers, Eva Stokhuijzen, Hanneke Bruijnzeel and Stephen D Krasinski
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:3
  33. The editors of BMC Molecular Biology would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal in Volume 14 (2013).

    Authors: Tim Sands
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:2
  34. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of small, non-coding single-stranded RNA molecules involved in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. As such, they are believed to play a role in regulating the st...

    Authors: Marlinda Hupkes, Ana M Sotoca, José M Hendriks, Everardus J van Zoelen and Koen J Dechering
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2014 15:1
  35. Alternative splicing contributes to the diversity of the proteome, and provides the cell with an important additional layer of regulation of gene expression. Among the many RNA binding proteins that regulate a...

    Authors: Christopher Edge, Clare Gooding and Christopher WJ Smith
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2013 14:29
  36. Previously we have identified a distal region of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) metallothionein-A (rtMT-A) enhancer region, being essential for free radical activation of the rtMT-A gene. The distal prom...

    Authors: Peter Kling, Carina Modig, Huthayfa Mujahed, Hazem Khalaf, Jonas von Hofsten and Per-Erik Olsson
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2013 14:28
  37. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) not only regulates drug-metabolizing enzyme expression but also regulates cancer malignancy. The steps to the development of malignancy include angiogenesis that is induced by t...

    Authors: Jun Terashima, Chie Tachikawa, Kenzo Kudo, Wataru Habano and Shogo Ozawa
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2013 14:27
  38. The in vivo transfer of naked plasmid DNA into organs such as muscles is commonly used to assess the expression of prophylactic or therapeutic genes in animal disease models.

    Authors: Stefania Puttini, Ruthger W van Zwieten, Damien Saugy, Małgorzata Lekka, Florence Hogger, Deborah Ley, Andrzej J Kulik and Nicolas Mermod
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2013 14:26
  39. Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries Hasle (Hasle) (Ps-n) is distinctive among the ecologically important marine diatoms because it produces the neurotoxin domoic acid. Although the biology of Ps-n has been investigated ...

    Authors: Katie Rose Boissonneault, Brooks M Henningsen, Stephen S Bates, Deborah L Robertson, Sean Milton, Jerry Pelletier, Deborah A Hogan and David E Housman
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2013 14:25
  40. The terminal step in the ubiquitin modification system relies on an E3 ubiquitin ligase to facilitate transfer of ubiquitin to a protein substrate. The substrate recognition and ubiquitin transfer activities o...

    Authors: Tadashi Nakagawa, Koushik Mondal and Patrick C Swanson
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2013 14:22
  41. Selecting stably expressed reference genes is essential for proper reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction gene expression analysis. However, this choice is not always straightforward. In ...

    Authors: Liesbeth Vossaert, Thomas O’Leary, Christophe Van Neste, Björn Heindryckx, Jo Vandesompele, Petra De Sutter and Dieter Deforce
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2013 14:21
  42. Phage PhiC31 integrase integrates attB-containing plasmid into pseudo attP site in eukaryotic genomes in a unidirectional site-specific manner and maintains robust transgene expression. Few studies, however, e...

    Authors: Yanzhen Bi, Ximei Liu, Long Zhang, Changwei Shao, Zhuo Ma, Zaidong Hua, Liping Zhang, Li Li, Wenjun Hua, Hongwei Xiao, Qingxin Wei and Xinmin Zheng
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2013 14:20
  43. Ecdysteroid hormones ecdysone and 20-hydroxyecdysone play fundamental roles in insect postembryonic development and reproduction. Five cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs), encoded by Halloween genes, have be...

    Authors: Shuang Jia, Pin-Jun Wan, Li-Tao Zhou, Li-Li Mu and Guo-Qing Li
    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2013 14:19