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  1. The Enabled/Vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (Ena/VASP) gene family comprises three genes in vertebrates: Vasp, Enabled homologue (Enah) and Ena-VASP like (Evl). Enah has the most complex gene structure. It ...

    Authors: Sylvie Veniere, Davy Waterschoot, Joël Vandekerckhove, Anja Lambrechts and Christophe Ampe

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:45

    Content type: Research article

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  2. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small single-stranded non-coding RNAs that act as crucial regulators of gene expression. Different methods have been developed for miRNA expression profiling in order to better understan...

    Authors: Alberto Biscontin, Silvia Casara, Stefano Cagnin, Lucia Tombolan, Angelo Rosolen, Gerolamo Lanfranchi and Cristiano De Pittà

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:44

    Content type: Methodology article

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  3. The human DHRS4 gene cluster consists of three genes, DHRS4, DHRS4L2 and DHRS4L1. Among them, DHRS4 encodes NADP(H)-dependent retinol dehydrogenase/reductase. In a previous study, we investigated the alternative ...

    Authors: Zhong-Jing Su, Qiao-Xia Zhang, Ge-Fei Liu, Xu-Hong Song, Qi Li, Rui-Jian Wang, Hai-Bin Chen, Xiao-Yuan Xu, Xu-Xia Sui and Dong-Yang Huang

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:43

    Content type: Research article

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  4. pIREShyg2 has been widely used as a bicistronic expression vector. However, it is not known if the vector would affect the expression of cloned genes via nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), an mRNA surveillanc...

    Authors: Yayoi Shikama, Huiyuan Hu, Makiko Ohno, Isao Matsuoka, Tsutomu Shichishima and Junko Kimura

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:42

    Content type: Methodology article

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  5. Archaea combine bacterial-as well as eukaryotic-like features to regulate cellular processes. Halobacterium salinarum R1 encodes eight leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp)-homologues. The function of two o...

    Authors: Rita Schwaiger, Christoph Schwarz, Katarina Furtwängler, Valery Tarasov, Andy Wende and Dieter Oesterhelt

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:40

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Given the epidemic proportions of obesity worldwide and the concurrent prevalence of metabolic syndrome, there is an urgent need for better understanding the underlying mechanisms of metabolic syndrome, in par...

    Authors: Rohini Mehta, Aybike Birerdinc, Noreen Hossain, Arian Afendy, Vikas Chandhoke, Zobair Younossi and Ancha Baranova

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:39

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The Eight-Twenty-One (ETO) nuclear co-repressor gene belongs to the ETO homologue family also containing Myeloid Translocation Gene on chromosome 16 (MTG16) and myeloid translocation Gene-Related protein 1 (MTGR1...

    Authors: Ram Ajore, Rakesh Singh Dhanda, Urban Gullberg and Inge Olsson

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:38

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family constitutes of dimeric proteins that regulate the growth, differentiation and metabolism of many cell types, including that of skeletal muscle in mammals. The po...

    Authors: Bruria Funkenstein, Elena Olekh and Sonia B Jakowlew

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:37

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Real time RT-PCR has become an important tool for analyzing gene expression in fish. Although several housekeeping genes have been evaluated in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus Hippoglossus L.), appropriate referen...

    Authors: Aina-Cathrine Øvergård, Audun Helge Nerland and Sonal Patel

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:36

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Formation of site specific genomic double strand breaks (DSBs), induced by the expression of a pair of engineered zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), dramatically increases the rates of homologous recombination (HR)...

    Authors: Petter A Olsen, Monika Gelazauskaite, Markus Randøl and Stefan Krauss

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:35

    Content type: Research article

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  11. The Y chromosome of mammals is particularly prone to accumulate genes related to male fertility. However, the high rate of molecular evolution on this chromosome predicts reduced power to the across-species co...

    Authors: Alexandra M Lopes, Ricardo N Miguel, Carole A Sargent, Peter J Ellis, António Amorim and Nabeel A Affara

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:33

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Alternative splicing is one of the key mechanisms that generate biological diversity. Even though alternative splicing also occurs in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs, the understanding of th...

    Authors: Ramesh Palaniswamy, Stephan Teglund, Matthias Lauth, Peter G Zaphiropoulos and Takashi Shimokawa

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:32

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Topors is a nuclear protein that co-localizes with promyelocytic leukemia bodies and has both ubiquitin and SUMO E3 ligase activity. Expression studies implicated Topors as a tumor suppressor in various malign...

    Authors: Henderson Marshall, Mantu Bhaumik, Hana Aviv, Dirk Moore, Ming Yao, Jayeeta Dutta, Hussein Rahim, Murugesan Gounder, Shridar Ganesan, Ahamed Saleem and Eric Rubin

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:31

    Content type: Research article

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  14. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a family of small non-coding RNA molecules, appear to regulate animal lipid metabolism and preadipocyte conversion to form lipid-assimilating adipocytes (i.e. adipogenesis). However, no miRNA ...

    Authors: Weiwu Jin, Michael V Dodson, Stephen S Moore, John A Basarab and Le Luo Guan

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:29

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Strict regulation of caste differentiation, at the molecular level, is thought to be important to maintain social structure in insect societies. Previously, a number of extrinsic and intrinsic factors have bee...

    Authors: Matthew R Tarver, Xuguo Zhou and Michael E Scharf

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:28

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Elasmobranch fishes are an ancient group of vertebrates which have high potential as model species for research into evolutionary physiology and genomics. However, no comparative studies have established suita...

    Authors: Kalle T Rytkönen, Gillian MC Renshaw, Kevin J Ashton, Grant Williams-Pritchard, Erica H Leder and Mikko Nikinmaa

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:27

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Selection of appropriate endogenous control is a critical step in gene expression analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate expression stability of four frequently used endogenous controls: β-actin, glyc...

    Authors: Jelena Brkljačić, Nikola Tanić, Danijela Vojnović Milutinović, Ivana Elaković, Sanja Manitašević Jovanović, Tatjana Perišić, Jadranka Dundjerski and Gordana Matić

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:26

    Content type: Methodology article

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  18. Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are found in many organisms, in which they contribute to several important biological processes. The vertebrate α-CA family consists of 16 subfamilies, three of which (VIII, X and XI)...

    Authors: Ashok Aspatwar, Martti EE Tolvanen and Seppo Parkkila

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:25

    Content type: Research article

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  19. The Red-headed krait (Bungarus flaviceps, Squamata: Serpentes: Elapidae) is a medically important venomous snake that inhabits South-East Asia. Although the venoms of most species of the snake genus Bungarus have...

    Authors: Ang Swee Siang, Robin Doley, Freek J Vonk and R Manjunatha Kini

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:24

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Hexamerins are hemocyanin-derived proteins that have lost the ability to bind copper ions and transport oxygen; instead, they became storage proteins. The current study aimed to broaden our knowledge on the he...

    Authors: Juliana R Martins, Francis MF Nunes, Alexandre S Cristino, Zilá LP Simões and Márcia MG Bitondi

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:23

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive method for mRNA quantification, but requires invariant expression of the chosen reference gene(s). In pathological myocardium, there is limited inf...

    Authors: Trond Brattelid, Lisbeth H Winer, Finn Olav Levy, Knut Liestøl, Ole M Sejersted and Kristin B Andersson

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:22

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Differentiation of F9 embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells into parietal endoderm (PE) provides a tractable model system for studying molecular events during early and inaccessible stages of murine development. PE f...

    Authors: Dimitris Athineos, Lynne Marshall and Robert J White

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:21

    Content type: Research article

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  23. We have previously demonstrated that the POU transcription factor CEH-6 is required for driving aqp-8 expression in the C. elegans excretory (canal) cell, an osmotic regulatory organ that is functionally analogou...

    Authors: Allan K Mah, Domena K Tu, Robert C Johnsen, Jeffrey S Chu, Nansheng Chen and David L Baillie

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:19

    Content type: Research article

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  24. When DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) are induced by ionizing radiation (IR) in cells, histone H2AX is quickly phosphorylated into γ-H2AX (p-S139) around the DSB site. The necessity of DNA-PKcs in regulating the...

    Authors: Jing An, Yue-Cheng Huang, Qing-Zhi Xu, Li-Jun Zhou, Zeng-Fu Shang, Bo Huang, Yu Wang, Xiao-Dan Liu, De-Chang Wu and Ping-Kun Zhou

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:18

    Content type: Research article

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  25. The bacterial Lsm protein, Hfq, is an RNA chaperone involved in many reactions related to RNA metabolism, such as replication and stability, control of small RNA activity and polyadenylation. Despite this wide...

    Authors: Jacques Le Derout, Irina V Boni, Philippe Régnier and Eliane Hajnsdorf

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:17

    Content type: Research article

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  26. It has been observed that following viroid infection, there is an accumulation of viroid-derived siRNAs in infected plants. Some experimental results suggest that these small RNAs may be produced by the plant ...

    Authors: François Bolduc, Christopher Hoareau, Patrick St-Pierre and Jean-Pierre Perreault

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:16

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique for quantifying gene expression levels. One or more appropriate reference genes must be selected to acc...

    Authors: Asad Maroufi, Erik Van Bockstaele and Marc De Loose

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:15

    Content type: Research article

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  28. MCPIP is a novel CCCH zinc finger protein described as an RNase engaged in the regulation of immune responses. The regulation of expression of the gene coding for MCPIP - ZC3H12A is poorly explored.

    Authors: Aneta Kasza, Paulina Wyrzykowska, Irena Horwacik, Piotr Tymoszuk, Danuta Mizgalska, Karren Palmer, Hanna Rokita, Andrew D Sharrocks and Jolanta Jura

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:14

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Lymphoid Enhancer Factor-1 (Lef-1) is a member of a transcription factor family that acts as downstream mediator of the Wnt/β-catenin signalling pathway which plays a critical role in osteoblast proliferation ...

    Authors: Elisabetta Lambertini, Tiziana Franceschetti, Elena Torreggiani, Letizia Penolazzi, Antonio Pastore, Stefano Pelucchi, Roberto Gambari and Roberta Piva

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:13

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Gene expression analysis has many applications in cancer diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic care. Relative quantification is the most widely adopted approach whereby quantification of gene expression is norm...

    Authors: Elrasheid AH Kheirelseid, Kah Hoong Chang, John Newell, Michael J Kerin and Nicola Miller

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:12

    Content type: Research article

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  31. There has long been evidence supporting the idea that RNR and the dNTP-synthesizing complex must be closely linked to the replication complex or replisome. We contributed to this body of evidence in proposing ...

    Authors: M Antonia Sánchez-Romero, Felipe Molina and Alfonso Jiménez-Sánchez

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:11

    Content type: Research article

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  32. TFIID is a multiprotein complex that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription owing to its core promoter recognition and co-activator functions. TAF6 is a core TFIID s...

    Authors: Emmanuelle Wilhelm, Mara Kornete, Brice Targat, Jimmy Vigneault-Edwards, Mattia Frontini, Laszlo Tora, Arndt Benecke and Brendan Bell

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:10

    Content type: Research article

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  33. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) is a pivotal enzyme involved in metabolism of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan commonly used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer. We previously demonstrated...

    Authors: Anne-Sophie Bélanger, Jelena Tojcic, Mario Harvey and Chantal Guillemette

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:9

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is an important pasture and turf crop. Biotechniques such as gene expression studies are being employed to improve traits in this temperate grass. Quantitative reverse trans...

    Authors: Julia M Lee, John R Roche, Danny J Donaghy, Anthony Thrush and Puthigae Sathish

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:8

    Content type: Research article

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  35. The mechanisms of brain injury following intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) are incompletely understood. Gene expression studies using quantitative real-time RT-PCR following ICH have increased our understanding ...

    Authors: Naomi L Cook, Timothy J Kleinig, Corinna van den Heuvel and Robert Vink

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:7

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Some organisms can survive extreme desiccation by entering a state of suspended animation known as anhydrobiosis. The free-living mycophagous nematode Aphelenchus avenae can be induced to enter anhydrobiosis by p...

    Authors: Wesley Reardon, Sohini Chakrabortee, Tiago Campos Pereira, Trevor Tyson, Matthew C Banton, Katharine M Dolan, Bridget A Culleton, Michael J Wise, Ann M Burnell and Alan Tunnacliffe

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:6

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Placenta-derived oestrogens have an impact on the growth and differentiation of the trophoblast, and are involved in processes initiating and facilitating birth. The enzyme that converts androgens into oestrog...

    Authors: Rainer Fürbass, Wolfgang Tomek and Jens Vanselow

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:5

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Aberrant activation of protein kinases is one of the essential oncogenic driving forces inherent to the process of tumorigenesis. The protein kinase CK2 plays an important role in diverse biological processes,...

    Authors: Michal Mikula, Karolina Hanusek, Agnieszka Paziewska, Artur Dzwonek, Tymon Rubel, Karol Bomsztyk and Jerzy Ostrowski

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:4

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The transcriptional activity of Nuclear hormone Receptors (NRs) is regulated by interaction with coactivator or corepressor proteins. Many of these cofactors have been shown to have a misregulated expression o...

    Authors: Romain Guyot, Séverine Vincent, Julie Bertin, Jacques Samarut and Patrick Ravel-Chapuis

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:3

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The GLI transcription factors, mediators of the hedgehog signal bind with high affinity to the consensus sequence GACCACCCA. The affinity of variant single substitutions in GLI binding sites has been measured ...

    Authors: Martina Winklmayr, Carmen Schmid, Sandra Laner-Plamberger, Alexandra Kaser, Fritz Aberger, Thomas Eichberger and Anna-Maria Frischauf

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:2

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Azalea (Rhododendron simsii hybrids) is the most important flowering pot plant produced in Belgium, being exported world-wide. In the breeding program, flower color is the main feature for selection, only in late...

    Authors: Ellen De Keyser, Qing Yan Shu, Erik Van Bockstaele and Jan De Riek

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:1

    Content type: Research article

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  42. For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against reference genes is essential. In most studies on ticks where (semi-)quantitative RT-PCR is employed, normalizat...

    Authors: Ard M Nijhof, Jesper A Balk, Milagros Postigo and Frans Jongejan

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:112

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Whole genome transcriptomic analysis is a powerful approach to elucidate the molecular mechanisms controlling the pathogenesis of obligate intracellular bacteria. However, the major hurdle resides in the low q...

    Authors: Loïc Emboulé, France Daigle, Damien F Meyer, Bernard Mari, Valérie Pinarello, Christian Sheikboudou, Virginie Magnone, Roger Frutos, Alain Viari, Pascal Barbry, Dominique Martinez, Thierry Lefrançois and Nathalie Vachiéry

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:111

    Content type: Methodology article

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  44. The Tousled-like kinases are involved in chromatin assembly, DNA repair, transcription, and chromosome segregation. Previous evidence indicated that TLK1B can promote repair of plasmids with cohesive ends in vitr...

    Authors: Caroline Canfield, Justin Rains and Arrigo De Benedetti

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:110

    Content type: Research article

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  45. hAT elements and V(D)J recombination may have evolved from a common ancestral transposable element system. Extrachromosomal, circular forms of transposable elements (referred to here as episomal forms) have been ...

    Authors: David A O'Brochta, Christina D Stosic, Kristina Pilitt, Ramanand A Subramanian, Robert H Hice and Peter W Atkinson

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2009 10:108

    Content type: Research article

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