- Research article
- Open Access
Chibby forms a homodimer through a heptad repeat of leucine residues in its C-terminal coiled-coil motif
© Mofunanya et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
- Received: 17 July 2008
- Accepted: 12 May 2009
- Published: 12 May 2009
The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway plays crucial roles in embryonic development and in maintenance of organs and tissues in adults. Chibby (Cby) is an evolutionarily conserved molecule that physically interacts with the key downstream coactivator β-catenin and represses its transcriptional activation potential. Although Cby harbors a predicted coiled-coil motif in the C-terminal region, its molecular nature and functional importance remain largely unexplored.
Here we report that Cby forms a stable complex with itself. Alanine substitutions of two or more of four critical leucine residues within the C-terminal heptad repeats completely eliminate the Cby-Cby interaction. The Cby oligomer predominantly exists as a homodimer. Furthermore, we found that dimerization-deficient Cby mutants still retain the ability to bind to β-catenin and to repress β-catenin-dependent gene activation. More importantly, Cby homodimerization is required for its efficient interaction with the nuclear import receptor importin-α and subsequent nuclear translocation.
Our comprehensive mutational analysis of the Cby coiled-coil domain reveals that the four heptad leucine residues play an essential role in mediating Cby homodimerization. Although monomeric Cby is sufficient to bind to β-catenin and block β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation, homodimer formation of Cby is indispensable for its efficient nuclear import.
- Nuclear Localization Signal
- HEK293T Cell
- Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease
- Nuclear Import
- Heptad Repeat
Intracellular signaling activated by the Wnt family of secreted cysteine-rich glycoproteins is crucial for embryonic development, stem cell self-renewal and adult homeostasis [1–3]. More recently, dysregulation of Wnt signaling has been linked to a range of human diseases, especially cancer [4–6]. For instance, canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling is aberrantly activated in greater than 70% of colorectal cancers, promoting cancer cell proliferation, survival and migration [7, 8]. Accordingly, the Wnt/β-catenin pathway has gained recognition as an enticing molecular target for cancer therapeutics [9, 10]. In this signaling cascade, β-catenin plays a pivotal role as a transcriptional coactivator [11, 12]. In the absence of a Wnt ligand, cytoplasmic β-catenin becomes phosphorylated by casein kinase 1 (CK1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) in a complex containing the tumor suppressors Axin and Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), and is targeted for ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation [13, 14]. Wnt binding to the seven transmembrane Frizzled (Fz) receptors and the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) co-receptors, LRP5 and LRP6, triggers recruitment of Axin to the plasma membrane, resulting in inhibition of β-catenin phosphorylation and degradation [15, 16]. As a consequence, β-catenin accumulates in the cytoplasm and then translocates into the nucleus where it forms a complex with the T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (Tcf/Lef) family of transcription factors, leading to activation of target genes [17, 18].
We previously reported a β-catenin antagonist Chibby (Cby) . The human Cby protein is composed of 126 amino acids, and is highly conserved throughout evolution. Cby physically interacts with the C-terminal activation domain of β-catenin. Our recent crystal structural studies for a full-length β-catenin suggest that Cby binds to the Helix C located at the C-terminal end of the central Armadillo repeat region of β-catenin . Cby functions as a repressor of β-catenin by competing with Tcf/Lef factors for β-catenin binding. Reduction of Cby protein levels in Drosophila melanogaster embryos by RNA interference (RNAi) results in hyperactivation of this pathway [19, 21, 22], underscoring the biological importance of Cby's function. Using in vitro cell culture models, we demonstrated that Cby facilitates adipocyte and cardiomyocyte differentiation of pluripotent stem cells through inhibition of β-catenin signaling [23, 24]. More recently, we isolated 14-3-3 adaptor proteins as novel Cby-binding partners [25, 26]. Upon phosphorylation of Cby serine 20 by Akt kinase, Cby and 14-3-3 form a stable trimolecular complex with β-catenin, and cooperate to promote cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin, leading to down-regulation of β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation. Therefore, we proposed a new model in which inhibition of β-catenin signaling by Cby involves at least two distinct molecular mechanisms, i.e. competing with Tcf/Lef transcription factors for binding to β-catenin in the nucleus , and facilitating nuclear export of β-catenin via interaction with 14-3-3, following phosphorylation of Cby serine 20 by Akt .
Through comparison of Cby protein sequences across species, we noted that Cby contains a conserved putative coiled-coil motif in its C-terminal region . In a later study, Hidaka et al. performed a yeast two-hybrid screen using full-length human Cby as bait, and pulled out Cby itself . Their subsequent deletion analysis indicated that the C-terminal region of human Cby protein encompassing the coiled-coil domain (amino acids 60–112) is prerequisite for its self-association. However, the nature of Cby homooligomers and specific amino acid residues responsible for Cby self-assembly has remained to be elucidated.
In the present study, we report that Cby forms a stable homodimer via its C-terminal leucine zipper coiled-coil domain. Using a variety of Cby point mutants generated by site-directed mutagenesis, we found that four leucine residues in the C-terminal heptad-repeat region are responsible for Cby homodimerization. We also show that Cby mutants defective in homodimer formation are capable of both binding to β-catenin and antagonizing its signaling activity. More importantly, we provide evidence that Cby homodimerization is necessary for its efficient binding to the nuclear import receptor importin-α and subsequent nuclear import.
Cby forms a stable oligomer
Next, split synthetic Renilla luciferase (hRluc) assays  were employed as an independent means to verify the Cby-Cby interaction. To this end, Cby or negative control GFP was fused in-frame to the N-terminal portion of hRluc (Cby-RN or GFP-RN) or to the C-terminal portion of hRluc (Cby-RC or GFP-RC). Physical interactions between fusion proteins would bring the N-terminal and C-terminal portions of hRluc together and restore its activity. The constructs were transfected into HEK293T cells in various combinations and hRluc activities were measured. As shown in Figure 1B, co-transfection of empty vectors (RN and RC) or Cby- and GFP-hRluc fusion plasmids (Cby-RN and GFP-RC or GFP-RN and Cby-RC) produced only a basal level of hRluc activity. In contrast, robust hRluc activity was observed when Cby-RN and Cby-RC were coexpressed. We also utilized a cell-permeable substrate for Renilla luciferase (ViviRen) to detect protein-protein interactions in live cells in real time. Figure 1C demonstrates that transient co-transfection of Cby-RN and Cby-RC expression vectors into HEK293T cells resulted in a high luminescence value, whereas either vector in combination with an empty plasmid (RC or RN) generated only low background luminescence. Interactions between Cby and the well-established basic leucine zipper (bZIP) coiled-coil transcription factors, Jun and Fos, were also tested using the ViviRen live cell substrate. No marked luminescence was detected when Cby-RN and Fos-RC or Jun-RN and Cby-RC were coexpressed in HEK293T cells, compared to that of Jun-Fos and Cby-Cby interactions, suggesting that the Cby-Cby interaction is specific.
Furthermore, we examined the stability of the Cby oligomer (Figure 1D). Flag-Cby and HA-Cby expression plasmids were co-transfected into HEK293T cells, and cell lysates were immunoprecipitated with anti-HA antibody. The immunoprecipitates were then exposed to increasing concentrations of NaCl or urea as indicated, resolved by SDS-PAGE, and analyzed by immunoblotting using anti-Flag antibody. Essentially, a similar amount of Flag-Cby was detected in the presence of up to 2 M NaCl or 2 M urea. These results indicate that the Cby oligomer is highly stable and that both electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions may contribute to the stability of the Cby complex.
Cby is present as a homodimer
As an independent means, we conducted glutaraldehyde cross-linking analysis. For this purpose, His-tagged Cby was transiently expressed in HEK293T cells, and purified using nickel beads. The purified Cby protein was then incubated in the presence or absence of glutaraldehyde for 5 or 20 min, and the cross-linked proteins were resolved by SDS-PAGE, followed by Western blot analysis with anti-Cby antibody (Figure 2B). As expected, in the absence of glutaraldehyde, His-Cby had an apparent monomer molecular weight of 22 kDa. On the other hand, after incubating with glutaraldehyde, His-Cby migrated slower at a higher molecular weight of approximately 44 kDa. Similar results were also observed using dimethyl suberimidate (DMS), another cross-linking reagent that contains a longer spacer arm (Figure 2C). All together, these results suggest that Cby predominantly exists as a homodimer.
Cby harbors a putative leucine zipper coiled-coil motif in its C-terminal region
Cby self-interaction is mediated by the conserved leucine residues within the C-terminal heptad-repeat motif
Cby self-association is not required for its interaction with β-catenin and inhibition of β-catenin-dependent transcriptional activation
Cby homodimerization ensures its efficient nuclear entry
Our recent studies indicate that Cby harbors a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS) at the C-terminal end and a nuclear export signal (NES) in the N-terminal region, and constitutively shuttles between the nucleus and cytoplasm  (F.-Q. Li et al., manuscript submitted). Worthy of note, it has been reported that dimerization is a prerequisite process for the nuclear import of STAT, SREBP2 and viral IE1 transcription factors [36–38].
Our recent data indicate that the C-terminal classical NLS of Cby physically interacts with the nuclear import receptor importin-α (F.-Q. Li et al., manuscript submitted). In the classical nuclear import pathway, importin-α plays a pivotal role by directly binding to NLS-containing proteins, linking them to importin-β [41–43]. Importin-β in turn docks the ternary import complex at the nuclear pore complex (NPC) and facilitates its translocation into the nucleus. In order to explore the molecular basis underlying the nuclear import defect of Cby homodimer mutants, we investigated interactions between Cby mutants and importin-α3 using in vitro binding assays. Bacterially produced MBP or MBP-Cby was incubated with GST-importin-α3 and pulled down using amylose resin. After extensive washing, the bound proteins were separated on SDS-PAGE and immunoblotted with anti-GST antibody. As shown in Figure 7D, the Cby single point mutants L77A and L91A bound to importin-α3 albeit with a slightly reduced affinity in comparison with CbyWT. On the other hand, the dimerization-defective CbyL77A/L91A exhibited a marked reduction in its ability to interact with importin-α3. Collectively, our results suggest that Cby homodimerization is a prerequisite for its efficient interaction with importin-α and subsequent nuclear translocation.
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is essential for numerous cellular processes during embryonic development, tissue homeostasis and tumorigenesis. Upon Wnt stimulation, β-catenin, the key downstream component of this pathway, enters the nucleus and acts as a transcriptional coactivator to up-regulate target gene expression. Cby is an evolutionarily conserved protein that directly binds to the C-terminal activation domain of β-catenin and antagonizes its signaling activity . Cby has been shown to interact with itself through its C-terminal region using yeast two-hybrid assays . However, the molecular basis for the Cby-Cby interaction has remained largely uncharacterized to date.
Here we provide evidence that Cby forms a homodimer via the leucine zipper coiled-coil motif in its C-terminal region. The Cby complex is highly stable even in the presence of 2 M NaCl or 2 M urea (Figure 1D). We found that the four leucine residues in the d position of the helical wheel diagram (amino acids 77, 84, 91 and 98 in Figure 3D) are crucial for mediating Cby self-association. Alanine mutagenesis of two or more leucines completely abolishes the Cby-Cby interaction (Figures 4 and 5). Furthermore, our data indicate that the Cby-Cby interaction is not obligatory both for binding to β-catenin and for suppressing its signaling activity (Figure 6). Instead, homodimerization of Cby is a prerequisite process for its efficient binding to importin-α and nuclear import (Figure 7).
α-Helical coiled-coil motifs are versatile domains that mediate numerous protein-protein interactions [29, 30]. The C-terminal coiled-coil motif of Cby is evolutionarily conserved from fly to human, implying the biological importance of this domain. Consistent with the presence of the α-helical coiled-coil structure, circular dichroism (CD) studies showed that Cby protein has a high α-helical content . Our cross-linking and gel filtration experiments suggest that Cby predominantly forms a dimer (Figure 2). However, it is also possible that Cby exists in a larger oligomeric state under certain conditions as shown for other coiled-coil proteins [29, 30]. In order to gain further insights into the molecular basis and functional significance of the Cby-Cby interaction, it would be of great interest to determine the three-dimensional structure of the Cby complex. However, so far, Cby protein is insoluble and forms inclusion bodies when expressed using bacterial as well as baculoviral expression systems (data not shown), thereby impeding further structural and biochemical analyses. We found that the aggregation of Cby protein is mainly caused by the C-terminal coiled-coil domain since the N-terminal half of the protein is highly soluble in E. coli (data not shown).
Our recent data suggest that Cby harbors functional NLS and NES motifs, and constantly cycles between the nucleus and cytoplasm. Thus, it appears that Cby intracellular localization at steady state is determined by a dynamic balance between its nuclear import and export. In this respect, Cby homodimerization represents a crucial step for its efficient binding to importin-α and subsequent nuclear import. It is noteworthy that dimer formation has been shown to be the key regulatory event controlling the nuclear entry of STAT, SREBP2 and viral IE1 transcription factors [36–38]. Nuclear import of STATs is mediated by importin-α family members [37, 45], but that of SREBP2 depends on importin-β . Interestingly, binding of importin-α5 to STAT dimers strictly requires two intact NLS elements, one in each STAT monomer . We therefore envision that the assembly of Cby into dimers creates a fully functional NLS perhaps by juxtaposing the NLS of each monomer, allowing its efficient binding to importin-α and subsequent nuclear import. Alternatively, Cby oligomerization may induce a conformational change that unmasks the NLS.
Our results clearly show that Cby mutants deficient in self-interaction are capable of efficiently binding to β-catenin, leading to repression of its signaling activity to a similar extent as wild-type Cby (Figure 6), despite the fact that these Cby mutants are predominantly cytoplasmic (Figure 7). However, this is in agreement with our model in which Cby inhibits β-catenin signaling through two distinct molecular mechanisms [25, 26]: 1) in the nucleus, Cby competes with Tcf/Lef transcription factors for binding to β-catenin; 2) Cby sequesters β-catenin in the cytoplasm in collaboration with 14-3-3 proteins. Thus, we speculate that monomeric Cby suppresses β-catenin signaling by trapping β-catenin within the cytoplasmic compartment. Alternatively, a small portion of nuclear Cby might be sufficient to repress β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation since dimerization-deficient Cby mutants are able to enter the nucleus, albeit at a reduced rate (Figure 7B).
It is possible that the Cby-Cby interaction is of importance in certain biological contexts other than β-catenin signaling. For example, Cby has been shown to interact with thyroid cancer-1 (TC-1)  and polycystin-2 (PC-2) . TC-1 was initially identified as a gene whose expression was elevated in thyroid cancers . More recently, TC-1 was shown to interact with Cby and stimulate β-catenin signaling presumably by displacing Cby from β-catenin . However, its precise functions are not yet completely understood. PC-2 is another known binding partner of Cby . The PDK-2 gene, encoding PC-2, is mutated in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease [48, 49]. A previous report showed that Cby associates with PC-2 and regulates its subcellular distribution . Hence, Cby appears to exert multiple biological functions. Whether Cby self-association is involved in controlling the activity of TC-1 and PC-2 awaits further investigation.
In the present study, we demonstrated that Cby forms a stable dimer through its C-terminal coiled-coil motif, which consists of a heptad repeat of four conserved leucine residues. Our extensive mutational analysis clearly shows that these leucines are critical for Cby dimerization. In addition, our results indicate that the Cby self-interaction is dispensable for inhibition of β-catenin signaling but is required for Cby nuclear import.
Expression vectors for Flag-CbyWT, MBP-CbyWT, β-catenin-Myc and His-β catR10-C have been previously described [19, 50]. The GST-importin-α3 construct was a kind gift from Dr. Nancy Reich at SUNY at Stony Brook . To generate Myc- and HA-tagged CbyWT expression constructs, human Cby cDNA was excised from the Flag-CbyWT vector with Eco RI and Xho I, and subcloned into pCS2+Myc and pCS2+HA, respectively. A C-terminally Flag-tagged CbyWT (CbyWT-Flag) plasmid was generated by PCR amplification of human Cby cDNA using a 3' primer containing a Flag sequence, digested with Eco RI and Xho I and subcloned into pCS2+. Both N- and C-terminally Flag-tagged Cby point mutants were created with the QuickChange site-directed mutagenesis kit (Stratagene) using the Flag-tagged CbyWT vectors as templates. To obtain His-CbyWT mammalian expression plasmid, Cby cDNA was PCR-amplified, digested with Eco RI and Xho I, and subcloned into pcDNA4/HisMax A (Invitrogen). His-CbyL77A/L91A and His-Cby4A expression vectors were constructed by digesting the His-CbyWT construct with Bam HI and Xho I, and replacing its insert with the corresponding Cby mutant fragment from Flag-CbyL77A/L91A and Flag-Cby4A plasmids, respectively. To construct MBP-Cby mutants, the cDNA inserts were PCR-amplified, digested with Bgl II and Xho I, and ligated into pMAL-c2 (New England Biolabs). For synthetic Renilla luciferase (hRluc) protein-fragment-assisted complementation assays , cDNAs encoding Cby, GFP, Jun or Fos were amplified by PCR using plasmid templates, and ligated in-frame with the N-terminal portion (amino acids 1–239) or the C-terminal portion (amino acids 240–321) of hRluc into the pJCH510 or pJCH511 vector . All constructs were verified by DNA sequencing.
Cell culture and transfection
HEK293T cells were purchased from ATCC, and maintained in DMEM with 10% FBS and 100 units/ml penicillin-streptomycin. For transient transfection, cells were seeded onto 6- or 12-well tissue culture dishes, cultured overnight, and then transfected using Lipofectamine 2000 (Invitrogen) or SuperFect (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer's instructions. Empty vector was added to adjust the total amount of DNA to be the same in every transfection. To establish stable HEK293T cells, the His-CbyWT expression plasmid was transfected into HEK293T cells and selected with 500 μg/ml Zeocin (Invitrogen).
Coimmunoprecipitation and Western blotting
HEK293T cell lysates were prepared in lysis buffer containing 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 135 mM NaCl, 1.5 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EGTA, 1% Triton X-100, 10% glycerol and complete protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche), and cleared by centrifugation at 12,000 rpm for 30 min at 4°C. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunoblotting were performed as previously described [23, 25], except that increasing concentrations of NaCl and urea were included in wash buffer for the coimmunoprecipitation experiments shown in Figure 1D. The primary antibodies used were: mouse anti-Flag M2 (Sigma); mouse anti-Myc 9E10 (Invitrogen); rat anti-HA (Roche); rabbit anti-Cby ; rabbit anti-β-catenin (Sigma); rabbit anti-MBP (New England Biolabs); mouse anti-GST (Novagen).
Synthetic Renilla luciferase (hRluc) protein-fragment-assisted complementation and TOPFLASH assays
HEK293T cells were seeded onto 12-well plates and transfected with appropriate combinations of plasmids. Luciferase activities were measured using the Dual Luciferase Reporter Assay System (Promega) and a Berthold luminometer as previously described [23, 25]. An expression plasmid (10 ng) for Renilla luciferase (pRL-TK) or (5 ng) of firefly luciferase (pCMV-Luc) was co-transfected to normalize transfection efficiency. For the split hRluc assays using ViviRen live cell substrate in Figure 1C, cells were seeded onto 96-well plates and transfected with appropriate combinations of hRluc fusion constructs. The next day, ViviRen (Promega) was directly added to the tissue culture media and Renilla luciferase luminescence was measured according to the manufacturer's instructions.
Cross-linking experiments and gel filtration chromatography
His-tagged CbyWT, L77A/L91A and 4A were transiently expressed in HEK293T cells, and purified using Ni-NTA His-Bind Resin (Novagen) according to the manufacturer's instructions. The purified proteins were dialyzed against dialysis buffer containing 20 mM Hepes, pH 7.9, 100 mM NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 0.1% NP-40 and 10% glycerol. An aliquot of the protein samples was incubated in the absence or presence of freshly prepared glutaraldehyde (0.2% final concentration) (Sigma) at 37°C for 5 or 20 min or dimethyl suberimidate (DMS; 2 mg/ml final concentration) (Sigma) at room temperature for 30 min in a 40 μl of the dialysis buffer. The glutaraldehyde reaction was stopped by addition of 10 μl of 1 M Tris-HCl, pH 8.0. The samples were then mixed with SDS sample buffer, boiled and resolved by SDS-PAGE, followed by immunoblotting with anti-Cby antibody.
For the gel filtration experiment, His-Cby was purified from ten 15-cm dishes of stable HEK293T cells, and dialyzed against the dialysis buffer as described above for cross-linking. The protein sample was then loaded onto a Superdex 75 gel filtration column (Amersham Biosciences), and run via fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) (Amersham Biosciences) with gel filtration buffer containing 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0, 0.5 or 1.0 M NaCl, 1 mM EDTA, 2 mM DTT, 2 mM betaine-HCl, 0.02% Triton X-100 and 5% glycerol at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min. Fractions of approximately 0.5 ml were collected and analyzed by Western blotting with anti-Cby antibody. The column was calibrated using protein standards (Amersham Biosciences): ferritin, 450 kDa; aldolase,158 kDa; bovine serum albumin, 67 kDa; ovalbumin, 45 kDa; cytochrome C, 12 kDa.
Protein expression in bacteria and in vitro pull-down assays
Transfected COS7 cells were grown on glass coverslips, fixed with methanol-acetone (1:1, v/v), permeabilized with 0.2% Triton X-100 and blocked with 1% BSA in PBS. Flag-tagged Cby was detected using mouse anti-Flag M2 antibodies (Sigma), followed by TRITC-labelled goat anti-mouse IgG (Jackson Immunoresearch Laboratories). Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI (Sigma) and stained cells were analyzed by a Leica DM5000 fluorescent microscope. To quantify subcellular localization, independent transfections were performed at least three times, and a minimum of 100 cells were counted for each transfection.
We would like to thank Drs. D. Bogenhagen for assistance with the gel filtration experiment and discussion, N. Reich for the GST-importin-α3 plasmid, and M. Garcia-Diaz and E. Yakubovskaya for advice. This work was supported by a Junior Faculty Award (107JF42) from the American Diabetes Association to F.-Q. Li, and NIH/NIDDK R01 (DK073191) to K.-I. Takemaru.
- Wodarz A, Nusse R: Mechanisms of Wnt signaling in development. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 1998, 14: 59-88.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miller JR: The Wnts. Genome Biol. 2002, 3 (1): REVIEWS3001-PubMed CentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Pinto D, Clevers H: Wnt control of stem cells and differentiation in the intestinal epithelium. Exp Cell Res. 2005, 306 (2): 357-363.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nusse R: Wnt signaling in disease and in development. Cell Res. 2005, 15 (1): 28-32.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moon RT, Kohn AD, De Ferrari GV, Kaykas A: WNT and beta-catenin signalling: diseases and therapies. Nat Rev Genet. 2004, 5 (9): 691-701.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Clevers H: Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in development and disease. Cell. 2006, 127 (3): 469-480.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lustig B, Behrens J: The Wnt signaling pathway and its role in tumor development. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2003, 129 (4): 199-221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Polakis P: Wnt signaling and cancer. Genes Dev. 2000, 14 (15): 1837-1851.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Barker N, Clevers H: Mining the Wnt pathway for cancer therapeutics. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006, 5 (12): 997-1014.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Takemaru K, Ohmitsu M, Li FQ: An oncogenic hub: beta-catenin as a molecular target for cancer therapeutics. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2008, 186: 261-284.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Macdonald BT, Semenov MV, He X: SnapShot: Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. Cell. 2007, 131 (6): 1204-View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Takemaru K-I: Catenin, beta. UCSD-Nature Molecule Pages. 2006,Google Scholar
- Liu C, Li Y, Semenov M, Han C, Baeg GH, Tan Y, Zhang Z, Lin X, He X: Control of beta-catenin phosphorylation/degradation by a dual-kinase mechanism. Cell. 2002, 108 (6): 837-847.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kimelman D, Xu W: beta-catenin destruction complex: insights and questions from a structural perspective. Oncogene. 2006, 25 (57): 7482-7491.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huang H, He X: Wnt/beta-catenin signaling: new (and old) players and new insights. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2008, 20 (2): 119-125.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cadigan KM, Liu YI: Wnt signaling: complexity at the surface. J Cell Sci. 2006, 119 (Pt 3): 395-402.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Stadeli R, Hoffmans R, Basler K: Transcription under the control of nuclear Arm/beta-catenin. Curr Biol. 2006, 16 (10): R378-385.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Willert K, Jones KA: Wnt signaling: is the party in the nucleus?. Genes Dev. 2006, 20 (11): 1394-1404.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Takemaru K, Yamaguchi S, Lee YS, Zhang Y, Carthew RW, Moon RT: Chibby, a nuclear beta-catenin-associated antagonist of the Wnt/Wingless pathway. Nature. 2003, 422 (6934): 905-909.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xing Y, Takemaru K, Liu J, Berndt JD, Zheng JJ, Moon RT, Xu W: Crystal structure of a full-length beta-catenin. Structure. 2008, 16 (3): 478-487.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tolwinski NS, Wieschaus E: A nuclear function for armadillo/beta-catenin. PLoS Biol. 2004, 2 (4): E95-PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Greaves S: Small changes in Wnt signalling. Nat Cell Biol. 2003, 5 (5): 387-View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li FQ, Singh AM, Mofunanya A, Love D, Terada N, Moon RT, Takemaru K: Chibby promotes adipocyte differentiation through inhibition of beta-catenin signaling. Mol Cell Biol. 2007, 27 (12): 4347-4354.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singh AM, Li FQ, Hamazaki T, Kasahara H, Takemaru K, Terada N: Chibby, an antagonist of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway, facilitates cardiomyocyte differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells. Circulation. 2007, 115 (5): 617-626.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Li FQ, Mofunanya A, Harris K, Takemaru K: Chibby cooperates with 14-3-3 to regulate beta-catenin subcellular distribution and signaling activity. J Cell Biol. 2008, 181 (7): 1141-1154.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Takemaru KI, Fischer V, Li FQ: Fine-tuning of nuclear-catenin by chibby and 14-3-3. Cell Cycle. 2009, 8 (2):Google Scholar
- Hidaka S, Konecke V, Osten L, Witzgall R: PIGEA-14, a novel coiled-coil protein affecting the intracellular distribution of polycystin-2. J Biol Chem. 2004, 279 (33): 35009-35016.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Paulmurugan R, Gambhir SS: Monitoring protein-protein interactions using split synthetic renilla luciferase protein-fragment-assisted complementation. Anal Chem. 2003, 75: 1584-1589.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lupas A: Coiled coils: new structures and new functions. Trends Biochem Sci. 1996, 21 (10): 375-382.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Burkhard P, Stetefeld J, Strelkov SV: Coiled coils: a highly versatile protein folding motif. Trends Cell Biol. 2001, 11 (2): 82-88.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lupas A, Van Dyke M, Stock J: Predicting coiled coils from protein sequences. Science. 1991, 252 (5010): 1162-1164.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lupas A: Prediction and analysis of coiled-coil structures. Methods Enzymol. 1996, 266: 513-525.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alber T: Structure of the leucine zipper. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1992, 2 (2): 205-210.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Landschulz WH, Johnson PF, McKnight SL: The leucine zipper: a hypothetical structure common to a new class of DNA binding proteins. Science. 1988, 240 (4860): 1759-1764.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Korinek V, Barker N, Morin PJ, van Wichen D, de Weger R, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, Clevers H: Constitutive transcriptional activation by a beta-catenin-Tcf complex in APC-/- colon carcinoma. Science. 1997, 275 (5307): 1784-1787.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Olson VA, Wetter JA, Friesen PD: Baculovirus transregulator IE1 requires a dimeric nuclear localization element for nuclear import and promoter activation. J Virol. 2002, 76 (18): 9505-9515.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fagerlund R, Melen K, Kinnunen L, Julkunen I: Arginine/lysine-rich nuclear localization signals mediate interactions between dimeric STATs and importin alpha 5. J Biol Chem. 2002, 277 (33): 30072-30078.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nagoshi E, Yoneda Y: Dimerization of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 via the helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper domain is a prerequisite for its nuclear localization mediated by importin beta. Mol Cell Biol. 2001, 21 (8): 2779-2789.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kumagai A, Dunphy WG: Binding of 14-3-3 proteins and nuclear export control the intracellular localization of the mitotic inducer Cdc25. Genes Dev. 1999, 13 (9): 1067-1072.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brunet A, Kanai F, Stehn J, Xu J, Sarbassova D, Frangioni JV, Dalal SN, DeCaprio JA, Greenberg ME, Yaffe MB: 14-3-3 transits to the nucleus and participates in dynamic nucleocytoplasmic transport. J Cell Biol. 2002, 156 (5): 817-828.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goldfarb DS, Corbett AH, Mason DA, Harreman MT, Adam SA: Importin alpha: a multipurpose nuclear-transport receptor. Trends Cell Biol. 2004, 14 (9): 505-514.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Macara IG: Transport into and out of the nucleus. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2001, 65 (4): 570-594. table of contents,PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lange A, Mills RE, Lange CJ, Stewart M, Devine SE, Corbett AH: Classical nuclear localization signals: definition, function, and interaction with importin alpha. J Biol Chem. 2007, 282 (8): 5101-5105.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gall C, Xu H, Brickenden A, Ai X, Choy WY: The intrinsically disordered TC-1 interacts with Chibby via regions with high helical propensity. Protein Sci. 2007, 16 (11): 2510-2518.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liu L, McBride KM, Reich NC: STAT3 nuclear import is independent of tyrosine phosphorylation and mediated by importin-alpha3. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2005, 102 (23): 8150-8155.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jung Y, Bang S, Choi K, Kim E, Kim Y, Kim J, Park J, Koo H, Moon RT, Song K: et al, TC1 (C8orf4) enhances the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway by relieving antagonistic activity of Chibby. Cancer Res. 2006, 66 (2): 723-728. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chua EL, Young L, Wu WM, Turtle JR, Dong Q: Cloning of TC-1 (C8orf4), a novel gene found to be overexpressed in thyroid cancer. Genomics. 2000, 69 (3): 342-347.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wilson PD: Polycystic kidney disease. N Engl J Med. 2004, 350 (2): 151-164.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mochizuki T, Wu G, Hayashi T, Xenophontos SL, Veldhuisen B, Saris JJ, Reynolds DM, Cai Y, Gabow PA, Pierides A: et al, PKD2, a gene for polycystic kidney disease that encodes an integral membrane protein. Science. 1996, 272 (5266): 1339-1342. View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Takemaru KI, Moon RT: The transcriptional coactivator CBP interacts with beta-catenin to activate gene expression. J Cell Biol. 2000, 149 (2): 249-254.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.