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Table 1 Reference genes used for gene expression studies in renal cell carcinoma

From: In search of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies of human renal cell carcinoma by real-time PCR

Gene name Publications using that gene as reference gene
  Number %
GAPDH 63 36.4
ACTB 64 37.0
18S ribosomal RNA 10 5.8
Beta-2-microglobulin 7 4.0
RPLPO 5 2.9
HMBS 3 1.7
HPRT1 3 1.7
PPIA 3 1.7
TBP 3 1.7
Alpha tubulin 3 1.7
ALAS1 1 0.6
Enolase 1, (alpha) 1 0.6
Beta globin 1 0.6
Karyopherin alpha 6 1 0.6
Membrane cofactor protein 1 0.6
Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 1 0.6
Ribosomal protein L7 1 0.6
Ribosomal protein S9 1 0.6
Ribosomal protein S14 1 0.6
  1. Results of a PubMed search from October 1993 to August 2006 with 156 articles and 173 descriptions of different reference genes. Candidate reference genes tested in the present study are given as gene symbols in bold letters and their corresponding full names and accession numbers are indicated in Table 2. Further comments concerning the search results see the section "Limitations of this study".