FISH analysis of homologous pairing in wild-type and Atmnd1 plants. (A-E) Wild type, (F-J) Atmnd1. (A,F) Early leptotene with two green signals indicating that homologous chromosomes are unpaired. (B,G) Two signals observed at leptotene-zygotene transition. (C) Late zygotene stage with only one signal indicating that the chromosomes have synapsed. (D) Pachytene stage with one signal. (E) Desynapsis occurring at centromeres during diplotene as evident by two closely appearing signals. (H) Late zygotene stage, with two signals placed far apart indicating unpaired state of homologous chromosomes. (I) Pachytene equivalent stage, where two signals are evident (J) Diplotene with two widely separated signals. Scale Bars: 10 μm.