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  1. Alternative processing of α-thyroid hormone receptor (TRα, NR1A1) mRNAs gives rise to two functionally antagonistic nuclear receptors: TRα1, the α-type receptor, and TRα2, a non-hormone binding variant that is...

    Authors: Brandon C Rindfleisch, M Scott Brown, John L VandeBerg and Stephen H Munroe

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:97

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Amplification of single-stranded DNA circles has wide utility for a variety of applications. The two-primer ramified rolling circle amplification (RAM) reaction provides exponential DNA amplification under iso...

    Authors: Thomas P Beals, James H Smith, Raymond M Nietupski and David J Lane

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:94

    Content type: Research article

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  3. RNA interference (RNAi) emerges as a powerful tool to induce loss-of-function phenotypes. In the context of the brain, gene manipulation is best targeted to specific subsets of cells in order to achieve a phys...

    Authors: Beihui Liu, Haibo Xu, Julian FR Paton and Sergey Kasparov

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:93

    Content type: Research article

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  4. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the immunosuppressant rapamycin engenders a profound modification in the transcriptional profile leading to growth arrest. Mutants devoid of Rrd1, a protein possessing in vitro peptid...

    Authors: Nathalie Jouvet, Jeremie Poschmann, Julie Douville, Lisa Bulet and Dindial Ramotar

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:92

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM/CD166) is expressed by hematopoietic stem cells. However, its role in hematopoietic differentiation has not previously been defined.

    Authors: Fang Tan, Samit Ghosh, Flaubert Mbeunkui, Robert Thomas, Joshua A Weiner and Solomon F Ofori-Acquah

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:91

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Reliable reference genes are a vital prerequisite for any functional study employing quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) for analyzing gene expression. Yet a proper selection and assessment of the chosen r...

    Authors: Marten B Maeß, Stefanie Sendelbach and Stefan Lorkowski

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:90

    Content type: Research article

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  7. The promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein participates in a number of cellular processes, including transcription regulation, apoptosis, differentiation, virus defense and genome maintenance. This protein is st...

    Authors: Åsne Jul-Larsen, Amra Grudic, Rolf Bjerkvig and Stig O Bøe

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:89

    Content type: Research article

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  8. Geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) and p-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) are the basic precursors involved in shikonins biosynthesis. GPP is derived from mevalonate (MVA) and/or 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway(s...

    Authors: Ravi S Singh, Rishi K Gara, Pardeep K Bhardwaj, Anish Kaachra, Sonia Malik, Ravi Kumar, Madhu Sharma, Paramvir S Ahuja and Sanjay Kumar

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:88

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Most type II restriction-modification (RM) systems have two independent enzymes that act on the same DNA sequence: a modification methyltransferase that protects target sites, and a restriction endonuclease th...

    Authors: Meenakshi K Kaw and Robert M Blumenthal

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:87

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Stalk-eyed flies of the family Diopsidae have proven to be an excellent model organism for studying the evolution of ornamental sexual traits. In diopsid flies the eyes and antennae are borne at the end of lat...

    Authors: Ian A Warren, Kevin Fowler and Hazel Smith

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:86

    Content type: Methodology article

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  11. Eukaryotic transcription activators normally consist of a sequence-specific DNA-binding domain (DBD) and a transcription activation domain (AD). While many sequence patterns and motifs have been defined for DB...

    Authors: Chen-Huan Lin, Grace Lin, Chia-Pei Chang and Chien-Chia Wang

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:85

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Dengue viruses (DENV) are one of the most important viral diseases in the world with approximately 100 million infections and 200,000 deaths each year. The current lack of an approved tetravalent vaccine and i...

    Authors: James R Carter, James H Keith, Pradip V Barde, Tresa S Fraser and Malcolm J Fraser Jr

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:84

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Human cells depend critically on the signal recognition particle (SRP) for the sorting and delivery of their proteins. The SRP is a ribonucleoprotein complex which binds to signal sequences of secretory polype...

    Authors: Elena Iakhiaeva, Alexei Iakhiaev and Christian Zwieb

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:83

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Purα is an evolutionarily conserved cellular protein participating in processes of DNA replication, transcription, and RNA transport; all involving binding to nucleic acids and altering conformation and physic...

    Authors: Margaret J Wortman, Laura K Hanson, Luis Martínez-Sobrido, Ann E Campbell, Jonas A Nance, Adolfo García-Sastre and Edward M Johnson

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:81

    Content type: Research article

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  15. In male Drosophila melanogaster, the male specific lethal (MSL) complex is somehow responsible for a two-fold increase in transcription of most X-linked genes, which are enriched for histone H4 acetylated at lysi...

    Authors: Anja H Schiemann, Fang Li, Vikki M Weake, Esther J Belikoff, Kent C Klemmer, Stanley A Moore and Maxwell J Scott

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:80

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a transmembrane protein with multiple functions in different cell types. CEACAM1 expression is frequently mis-regulated in cancer, with down-regul...

    Authors: Marieta Gencheva, Charng-Jui Chen, Tung Nguyen and John E Shively

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:79

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are important cell signaling regulators with major pathological implications. LYP (also known as PTPN22) is an intracellular enzyme initially found to be predominately expr...

    Authors: Shaofeng Wang, Hongbo Dong, Jiayu Han, Wanting T Ho, Xueqi Fu and Zhizhuang J Zhao

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:78

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Combinatorial RNA interference (co-RNAi) is a valuable tool for highly effective gene suppression of single and multiple-genes targets, and can be used to prevent the escape of mutation-prone transcripts. Ther...

    Authors: Luke S Lambeth, Nick J Van Hateren, Stuart A Wilson and Venugopal Nair

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:77

    Content type: Methodology article

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  19. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) has been widely used for quantification of mRNA as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. For accurate gene quantifi...

    Authors: Guang-Mao Shen, Hong-Bo Jiang, Xiao-Na Wang and Jin-Jun Wang

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:76

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has been the method of choice for the quantification of mRNA. Due to the various artifactual factors that may affect the accuracy of qPCR, internal reference genes are most of...

    Authors: Alvin N Setiawan and P Mark Lokman

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:75

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The conclusions of thousands of peer-reviewed publications rely on data obtained using fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR technology. However, the inadequate reporting of experimental detail, combin...

    Authors: Stephen A Bustin, Jean-François Beaulieu, Jim Huggett, Rolf Jaggi, Frederick SB Kibenge, Pål A Olsvik, Louis C Penning and Stefan Toegel

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:74

    Content type: Editorial

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  22. Eucalyptus globulus and its hybrids are very important for the cellulose and paper industry mainly due to their low lignin content and frost resistance. However, rooting of cuttings of this species is recalcitran...

    Authors: Márcia R de Almeida, Carolina M Ruedell, Felipe K Ricachenevsky, Raul A Sperotto, Giancarlo Pasquali and Arthur G Fett-Neto

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:73

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Based on its activities in vitro, the mammalian mitochondrial transcription termination factor mTERF has been proposed to regulate mitochondrial transcription by favouring termination at its high-affinity binding...

    Authors: Anne K Hyvärinen, Mona K Kumanto, Sanna K Marjavaara and Howard T Jacobs

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:72

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), small cytosolic proteins that function in the uptake and utilization of fatty acids, have been extensively studied in higher vertebrates while invertebrates have received l...

    Authors: Ya-Nan Gong, Wei-Wei Li, Jiang-Ling Sun, Fei Ren, Lin He, Hui Jiang and Qun Wang

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:71

    Content type: Research article

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  25. During the last two decades, DNA sequencing has led to the identification of numerous genes in key species; however, in most cases, their functions are still unknown. In this situation, reverse genetics is the...

    Authors: Tomoko Ishikawa, Yasuhiro Kamei, Shinji Otozai, Jinhyong Kim, Ayuko Sato, Yoshikazu Kuwahara, Minoru Tanaka, Tomonori Deguchi, Hidenori Inohara, Tohru Tsujimura and Takeshi Todo

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:70

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Cryptochromes (CRYs) are a class of flavoprotein blue-light signaling receptors found in plants and animals, and they control plant development and the entrainment of circadian rhythms. They also act as integr...

    Authors: Natali Ozber, Ibrahim Baris, Gulnaz Tatlici, Ibrahim Gur, Seda Kilinc, Evrim B Unal and Ibrahim H Kavakli

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:69

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The ETS transcription factor Elf5 (also known as ESE-2) is highly expressed in the mammary gland and plays an important role in its development and differentiation. Indeed studies in mice have illustrated an e...

    Authors: Rosalba Escamilla-Hernandez, Rumela Chakrabarti, Rose-Anne Romano, Kirsten Smalley, Qianqian Zhu, William Lai, Marc S Halfon, Michael J Buck and Satrajit Sinha

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:68

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The c-myb proto-oncogene is the founding member of a family of transcription factors involved principally in haematopoiesis, in diverse organisms, from zebrafish to mammals. Its deregulation has been implicated i...

    Authors: Audrey Guillon-Munos, Ginette Dambrine, Nicolas Richerioux, Damien Coupeau, Benoît Muylkens and Denis Rasschaert

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:67

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Postnatal expansion of the pancreatic β-cell mass is required to maintain glucose homeostasis immediately after birth. This β-cell expansion is regulated by multiple growth factors, including glucose, insulin,...

    Authors: Haijuan Wang, Katarina Gambosova, Zachary A Cooper, Michael P Holloway, Andrea Kassai, Denisse Izquierdo, Kelly Cleveland, Charlotte M Boney and Rachel A Altura

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:66

    Content type: Research article

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  30. In insects, hemocyanin superfamily proteins accumulate apparently to serve as sources of amino acids during metamorphosis, reproduction and development. Storage hexamerins are important members of the hemocyan...

    Authors: Bin Tang, Shigui Wang and Fan Zhang

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:65

    Content type: Research article

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  31. The L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) was originally identified as a neural adhesion molecule involved in axon guidance. In many human epithelial carcinomas L1CAM is overexpressed and thereby augments cell mot...

    Authors: Marco Pfeifer, Uwe Schirmer, Claudia Geismann, Heiner Schäfer, Susanne Sebens and Peter Altevogt

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:64

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Smith-Magenis Syndrome is a contiguous gene syndrome in which the dosage sensitive gene has been identified: the Retinoic Acid Induced 1 (RAI1). Little is known about the function of human RAI1.

    Authors: Paulina Carmona-Mora, Carolina A Encina, Cesar P Canales, Lei Cao, Jessica Molina, Pamela Kairath, Juan I Young and Katherina Walz

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:63

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The mini-chromosome maintenance protein (MCM) complex is an essential replicative helicase for DNA replication in Archaea and Eukaryotes. While the eukaryotic complex consists of six homologous proteins (MCM2-...

    Authors: Aaron S Brewster, Ian M Slaymaker, Samir A Afif and Xiaojiang S Chen

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:62

    Content type: Research article

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  34. RT-qPCR analysis is a widely used method for the analysis of mRNA expression throughout the field of mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) research. Comparison between MSC studies, both in vitro and in vivo, are challen...

    Authors: Kevin M Curtis, Lourdes A Gomez, Carmen Rios, Elisa Garbayo, Ami P Raval, Miguel A Perez-Pinzon and Paul C Schiller

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:61

    Content type: Methodology article

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  35. Circadian rhythms have a profound effect on human health. Their disruption can lead to serious pathologies, such as cancer and obesity. Gene expression studies in these pathologies are often studied in differe...

    Authors: Rok Kosir, Jure Acimovic, Marko Golicnik, Martina Perse, Gregor Majdic, Martina Fink and Damjana Rozman

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:60

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Several genes have been used as housekeeping genes and choosing an appropriate reference gene is important for accurate quantitative RNA expression in real time RT-PCR technique. The expression levels of refer...

    Authors: Azalina Zainuddin, Kien Hui Chua, Norhazira Abdul Rahim and Suzana Makpol

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:59

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Poor reproductive maturation of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) in captivity is one of the serious threats to sustainability of the shrimp farming industry. Understanding molecular mechanisms governing r...

    Authors: Thidathip Wongsurawat, Rungnapa Leelatanawit, Natechanok Thamniemdee, Umaporn Uawisetwathana, Nitsara Karoonuthaisiri, Piamsak Menasveta and Sirawut Klinbunga

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:55

    Content type: Research article

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  38. In eukaryotes the transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II requires numerous general and regulatory factors including general transcription factors. The general transcription factor TFIIF controls the act...

    Authors: Sabrina Heisel, Nunja C Habel, Nicole Schuetz, Alessia Ruggieri and Eckart Meese

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:53

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Several chronic conditions leading to skeletal muscle dysfunction are known to be associated with changes in the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms at both the mRNA and protein level. Many of thes...

    Authors: Daniel P Tonge, Simon W Jones, Ronald G Bardsley and Tim Parr

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:52

    Content type: Methodology article

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  40. Activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) is a Transforming Growth Factor-β (TGF-β) receptor type I, mainly expressed in endothelial cells that plays a pivotal role in vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. Mutati...

    Authors: Eva M Garrido-Martin, Francisco J Blanco, Africa Fernandez-L, Carmen Langa, Calvin P Vary, Ursula E Lee, Scott L Friedman, Luisa M Botella and Carmelo Bernabeu

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:51

    Content type: Research article

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  41. The planktonic microcrustacean Daphnia pulex is among the best-studied animals in ecological, toxicological and evolutionary research. One aspect that has sustained interest in the study system is the ability of

    Authors: Katina I Spanier, Florian Leese, Christoph Mayer, John K Colbourne, Don Gilbert, Michael E Pfrender and Ralph Tollrian

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:50

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Histone deacetylase inhibitors have been proposed as potential enhancers of the cytotoxic effect of cisplatin and other anticancer drugs. Their application would permit the use of lower therapeutic doses and r...

    Authors: Miglena Koprinarova, Petya Markovska, Ivan Iliev, Boyka Anachkova and George Russev

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:49

    Content type: Research article

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  43. STAR/GSG proteins regulate gene expression in metazoans by binding consensus sites in the 5' or 3' UTRs of target mRNA transcripts. Owing to the high degree of homology across the STAR domain, most STAR protei...

    Authors: Andrew B Carmel, Joann Wu, Katrina A Lehmann-Blount and James R Williamson

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:48

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Normalization of gene expression data refers to the comparison of expression values using reference standards that are consistent across all conditions of an experiment. In PCR studies, genes designated as "ho...

    Authors: Nigel C Noriega, Steven G Kohama and Henryk F Urbanski

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:47

    Content type: Methodology article

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  45. Transcription cofactors related to Drosophila Schnurri facilitate the transcriptional programs regulated by BMP signaling in C. elegans, Drosophila, Xenopus, and mouse. In different systems, Schnurri homologs hav...

    Authors: Jianghua Yin, Ling Yu and Cathy Savage-Dunn

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2010 11:46

    Content type: Research article

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