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  1. Apolipoprotein B (APOB) is an integral part of the LDL, VLDL, IDL, Lp(a) and chylomicron lipoprotein particles. The APOB pre-mRNA consists of 29 constitutively-spliced exons. APOB exists as two natural isoforms: ...

    Authors: Bernard Khoo, Xavier Roca, Shern L Chew and Adrian R Krainer

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2007 8:3

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Despite of the fact that mammalian genomes are far more spacious than prokaryotic genomes, recent nucleotide sequencing data have revealed that many mammalian genes are arranged in a head-to-head orientation a...

    Authors: Ping-Yen Chen, Wun-Shaing W Chang, Ruey-Hwang Chou, Yiu-Kay Lai, Sheng-Chieh Lin, Chia-Yi Chi and Cheng-Wen Wu

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2007 8:2

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Ucp3 is an integral protein of the inner mitochondrial membrane with a role in lipid metabolism preventing deleterious effects of fatty acids in states of high lipid oxidation. Ucp3 is expressed in brown adipose ...

    Authors: Tobias Fromme, Kathrin Reichwald, Matthias Platzer, Xing-Sheng Li and Martin Klingenspor

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2007 8:1

    Content type: Research article

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  4. S100 proteins, a multigenic family of non-ubiquitous cytoplasmic Ca2+-binding proteins, have been linked to human pathologies in recent years. Dysregulated expression of S100 proteins, including S100A9, has been ...

    Authors: Jens Grote, Simone König, Doreen Ackermann, Claudia Sopalla, Malgorzata Benedyk, Marek Los and Claus Kerkhoff

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:48

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Mycobacteriophage Ms6 integrates into Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. bovis BCG chromosome at the 3' end of tRNAala genes. Homologous recombination occurs between the phage attP core and the attB site located in t...

    Authors: Tiago Dos Vultos, Isabelle Méderlé, Valérie Abadie, Madalena Pimentel, José Moniz-Pereira, Brigitte Gicquel, Jean-Marc Reyrat and Nathalie Winter

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:47

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Invitrogen Gateway technology exploits the integrase/att site-specific recombination system for directional cloning of PCR products and the subsequent subcloning into destination vectors. One or three DNA segment...

    Authors: Enrico Magnani, Linnea Bartling and Sarah Hake

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:46

    Content type: Methodology article

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  7. Macrophages (Mθ) play a central role in the innate immune response and in the pathology of chronic inflammatory diseases. Macrophages treated with Th2-type cytokines such as Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleuki...

    Authors: Kate Liddiard, John S Welch, Jean Lozach, Sven Heinz, Christopher K Glass and David R Greaves

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:45

    Content type: Research article

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  8. DNA ligases are required for DNA strand joining in all forms of cellular life. NAD+-dependent DNA ligases are found primarily in eubacteria but also in some eukaryotic viruses, bacteriophage and archaea. Among th...

    Authors: Laetitia Poidevin and Stuart A MacNeill

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:44

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Helicases play essential roles in many cellular processes including replication, transcription and translation. Most helicases translocate along one strand of the duplex while displacing the complementary stra...

    Authors: Jae-Ho Shin and Zvi Kelman

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:43

    Content type: Methodology article

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  10. Visceral leishmaniasis caused by members of the Leishmania donovani complex is often fatal in the absence of treatment. Research has been hampered by the lack of good laboratory models and tools for genetic manip...

    Authors: Hubert Denise, Jacqueline Poot, Maribel Jiménez, Audrey Ambit, Daland C Herrmann, Arno N Vermeulen, Graham H Coombs and Jeremy C Mottram

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:42

    Content type: Research article

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  11. By screening a plasmid library for proteins that could cause silencing when targeted to the HMR locus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we previously reported the identification of Rtt107/Esc4 based on its ability to

    Authors: David C Zappulla, Arindel SR Maharaj, Jessica J Connelly, Rebecca A Jockusch and Rolf Sternglanz

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:40

    Content type: Research article

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  12. A large number of organisms have internal circadian clocks that enable them to adapt to the cyclic changes of the external environment. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, feedback loops of transcripti...

    Authors: Antonio CA Meireles-Filho, Paulo R Amoretty, Nataly A Souza, Charalambos P Kyriacou and Alexandre A Peixoto

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:38

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) contributes to many cancers, but the rate at which these events occur in normal cells of the body is not clear. LOH would be detectable in diverse cell types in the body if this ev...

    Authors: Jon S Larson, Moying Yin, Jared M Fischer, Saundra L Stringer and James R Stringer

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:36

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Termination of translation in eukaryotes requires two release factors, eRF1, which recognizes all three nonsense codons and facilitates release of the nascent polypeptide chain, and eRF3 stimulating translatio...

    Authors: Valery N Urakov, Igor A Valouev, Natalia V Kochneva-Pervukhova, Anna N Packeiser, Alexander Yu Vishnevsky, Oleg O Glebov, Vladimir N Smirnov and Michael D Ter-Avanesyan

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:34

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Control genes, which are often referred to as housekeeping genes, are frequently used to normalise mRNA levels between different samples. However, the expression level of these genes may vary among tissues or ...

    Authors: Nicholas Silver, Steve Best, Jie Jiang and Swee Lay Thein

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:33

    Content type: Methodology article

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  16. Odontocete cetaceans occupy the top position of the marine food-web and are particularly sensitive to the bioaccumulation of lipophilic contaminants. The effects of environmental pollution on these species are...

    Authors: Giacomo Spinsanti, Cristina Panti, Elisa Lazzeri, Letizia Marsili, Silvia Casini, Francesco Frati and Cristina Maria Fossi

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:32

    Content type: Research article

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  17. The Red recombinase system of bacteriophage lambda has been used to inactivate chromosomal genes in E. coli K-12 through homologous recombination using linear PCR products. The aim of this study was to induce mut...

    Authors: Ruth Serra-Moreno, Sandra Acosta, Jean Pierre Hernalsteens, Juan Jofre and Maite Muniesa

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:31

    Content type: Methodology article

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  18. Coordinated chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation are required for normal endochondral bone growth. Transcription factors binding to the cyclicAMP response element (CRE) are known to regulate these pro...

    Authors: Claudine G James, Anita Woods, T Michael Underhill and Frank Beier

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:30

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Although relative quantification of real-time RT-PCR data can provide valuable information, one limitation remains the selection of an appropriate reference gene. No one gene has emerged as a universal referen...

    Authors: Anna Maria Calcagno, Katherine J Chewning, Chung-Pu Wu and Suresh V Ambudkar

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:29

    Content type: Research article

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  20. During the past years, we and others discovered a series of human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, now referred to as ABC A-subfamily transporters. Recently, a novel testis-specific ABC A transporter, ...

    Authors: Armin P Piehler, Jürgen J Wenzel, Ole K Olstad, Kari Bente Foss Haug, Peter Kierulf and Wolfgang E Kaminski

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:28

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Current understanding on the relationships between hypoxia, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene expression are largely based on in vitro studies in human cancer cel...

    Authors: Richard MK Yu, Eric XH Chen, Richard YC Kong, Patrick KS Ng, Helen OL Mok and Doris WT Au

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:27

    Content type: Research article

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  22. Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) is a key component for synthesis and maintenance of telomeres on chromosome ends and is required for the continued proliferation of cells. Estimation of hTERT expres...

    Authors: Stein Sæbøe-Larssen, Ellen Fossberg and Gustav Gaudernack

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:26

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Candida albicans biofilms are commonly found on indwelling medical devices. However, the molecular basis of biofilm formation and development is not completely understood. Expression analysis of genes potentially...

    Authors: Heleen Nailis, Tom Coenye, Filip Van Nieuwerburgh, Dieter Deforce and Hans J Nelis

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:25

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Pairing of homologous chromosomes at meiosis is an important requirement for recombination and balanced chromosome segregation among the products of meiotic division. Recombination is initiated by double stran...

    Authors: Aneesh P Panoli, Maruthachalam Ravi, Jose Sebastian, Bindu Nishal, Thamalampudi V Reddy, Mohan PA Marimuthu, Veeraputhiran Subbiah, Virupapuram Vijaybhaskar and Imran Siddiqi

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:24

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Naturally occurring tRNAs contain numerous modified nucleosides. They are formed by enzymatic modification of the primary transcripts during the complex RNA maturation process. In model organisms Escherichia coli

    Authors: Elzbieta Purta, Françoise van Vliet, Karolina L Tkaczuk, Stanislaw Dunin-Horkawicz, Hirotada Mori, Louis Droogmans and Janusz M Bujnicki

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:23

    Content type: Research article

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  26. In the past decades, the prevalence of candidemia has increased significantly and drug resistance has also become a pressing problem. Overexpression of CDR1, an efflux pump, has been proposed as a major mechanism...

    Authors: Yun-Liang Yang, Yi-Hsuan Lin, Ming-Yang Tsao, Chia-Geun Chen, Hsin-I Shih, Jen-Chung Fan, Jang-Shiun Wang and Hsiu-Jung Lo

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:22

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The formation of acyl-CoA by the action of acyl-CoA synthetases plays a crucial role in membrane lipid turnover, including the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. In human, five Acyl-CoA Synthetase Long-chain (ACSL)...

    Authors: Eric Soupene and Frans A Kuypers

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:21

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Several distinct pathways for the repair of damaged DNA exist in all cells. DNA modifications are repaired by base excision or nucleotide excision repair, while DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) can be repaired ...

    Authors: Judita Mascarenhas, Humberto Sanchez, Serkalem Tadesse, Dawit Kidane, Mahalakshmi Krisnamurthy, Juan C Alonso and Peter L Graumann

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:20

    Content type: Research article

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  29. DNAzymes cleave at predetermined sequences within RNA. A prerequisite for cleavage is that the DNAzyme can gain access to its target, and thus the DNAzyme must be capable of unfolding higher-order structures t...

    Authors: Birte Vester, Lykke H Hansen, Lars Bo Lundberg, B Ravindra Babu, Mads D Sørensen, Jesper Wengel and Stephen Douthwaite

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:19

    Content type: Research article

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  30. The human dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene has been studied extensively as a candidate gene for certain psychological traits and several behavioural and psychiatric disorders. Both the 5' regulatory region and...

    Authors: Eva Kereszturi, Orsolya Kiraly, Csaba Barta, Noemi Molnar, Maria Sasvari-Szekely and Zsolt Csapo

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:18

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Podocalyxin (podxl) is a heavily glycosylated transmembrane protein mainly found on the apical membrane of rat podocytes and also in endothelial, hematopoietic, and tumor cells. Despite of its interest no much...

    Authors: Nora Butta, Susana Larrucea, Sonia Alonso, Ramón B Rodriguez, Elena G Arias-Salgado, Matilde S Ayuso, Consuelo González-Manchón and Roberto Parrilla

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:17

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The spatial organization of transcription factor binding sites in regulatory DNA, and the composition of intersite sequences, influences the assembly of the multiprotein complexes that regulate RNA polymerase ...

    Authors: Derek Y Chiang, David A Nix, Ryan K Shultzaberger, Audrey P Gasch and Michael B Eisen

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:16

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are involved in adaptive and survival responses to hypoxic stress in mammals. In fish, very little is known about the functions of HIFs.

    Authors: Sheran HW Law, Rudolf SS Wu, Patrick KS Ng, Richard MK Yu and Richard YC Kong

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:15

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 (GSK3) activity is repressed following insulin treatment of cells. Pharmacological inhibition of GSK3 mimics the effect of insulin on Phosphoeno lpyruvate Carboxykinase (PEPCK), Glucose...

    Authors: H-K Liu, S Perrier, C Lipina, D Finlay, H McLauchlan, CJ Hastie, HS Hundal and C Sutherland

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:14

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Mammalian Gli proteins are important transcription factors involved in the regulation of Sonic hedgehog signal transduction pathway. Association of Gli2 with mammalian development and human disease led us to s...

    Authors: Mart Speek, Olga Njunkova, Illar Pata, Eola Valdre and Priit Kogerman

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:13

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The centromeres in yeast (S. cerevisiae) are organized by short DNA sequences (125 bp) on each chromosome consisting of 2 conserved elements: CDEI and CDEIII spaced by a CDEII region. CDEI and CDEIII are critical...

    Authors: Brad Hennemuth and Kenneth A Marx

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:12

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) Parvulin (Par14/PIN4) is highly conserved in all metazoans and is assumed to play a role in cell cycle progression and chromatin remodeling. It is predominantly...

    Authors: Jonathan Wolf Mueller, Daniel Kessler, Daniel Neumann, Tina Stratmann, Panagiotis Papatheodorou, Cristina Hartmann-Fatu and Peter Bayer

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:9

    Content type: Research article

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  38. CD36 is a membrane glycoprotein involved in a variety of cellular processes such as lipid transport, immune regulation, hemostasis, adhesion, angiogenesis and atherosclerosis. It is expressed in many tissues a...

    Authors: Malin Andersen, Boris Lenhard, Carl Whatling, Per Eriksson and Jacob Odeberg

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:8

    Content type: Research article

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  39. Vitamin A and its derivatives, the retinoids, are essential for normal embryonic development and maintenance of cell differentiation. β, β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1) catalyzes the central cleavage...

    Authors: Xiaoming Gong, Shu-Whei Tsai, Bingfang Yan and Lewis P Rubin

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:7

    Content type: Research article

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  40. The cancer-prone and accelerated aging disease Werner syndrome is caused by loss of function of the WRN gene product that possesses ATPase, 3' to 5' helicase and 3' to 5' exonuclease activities. Although WRN has ...

    Authors: Amrita Machwe, Liren Xiao and David K Orren

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:6

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Circadian rhythms are endogenous, self-sustained oscillations with approximately 24-hr rhythmicity that are manifested in various physiological and metabolic processes. The circadian organization of these proc...

    Authors: Yasukazu Nakahata, Makoto Akashi, Daniel Trcka, Akio Yasuda and Toru Takumi

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:5

    Content type: Research article

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  42. The LAT gene encodes an intracellular adaptor protein that links cell-surface receptor engagement to numerous downstream signalling events, and thereby plays an integral role in the function of cell types that ex...

    Authors: Timothy S Finco, Geri E Justice-Healy, Shivani J Patel and Victoria E Hamilton

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:4

    Content type: Research article

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  43. The integrity of RNA molecules is of paramount importance for experiments that try to reflect the snapshot of gene expression at the moment of RNA extraction. Until recently, there has been no reliable standar...

    Authors: Andreas Schroeder, Odilo Mueller, Susanne Stocker, Ruediger Salowsky, Michael Leiber, Marcus Gassmann, Samar Lightfoot, Wolfram Menzel, Martin Granzow and Thomas Ragg

    Citation: BMC Molecular Biology 2006 7:3

    Content type: Methodology article

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