Organization of the upstream regulatory sequences of acsp30 in the refractory strain mosquitoes. Two TATA like boxes are present with corresponding arthropod initiator (Inr) sequences and capsites, which constitute the core promoter. Vertebrate upstream immune response elements are represented in bold fonts and underlined; hepatic nuclear factor 5 (HNF-5), nuclear factor interleukin 6 (NF-IL6), interferon consensus response elements (ICRE) and nuclear factor endothelial adhesion molecules (NF-ELAM 1), ecdysteroid response elements (EcRE) and the different GATA factors are in bold face and italicized. Consensus sequences for all these motifs are described in the text. Insect regulatory sequence motifs are boxed. The numbers to the left denote the positions of the first nucleotide in each line, relative to ATG at +1. The open block arrow indicates the predicted transcriptional start site (TSS).