EMSA analysis of footprint regions. Sequence-specific proteins bound to oligos fp1, fp2, fp5 and fp7 of the human PDPN promoter. Nuclear extracts from MG63 and Saos-2 cells were incubated with 32P end-labeled double-stranded oligonucleotides, in the absence (-) or presence of a 100-fold molar excess of unlabeled specific (s) and unspecific (ns) oligonucleotide, as described in the "Methods" section. As unspecific probes, Oct-1 (fp1, fp2, fp5, fp7) or AP-4 (fp4 and fp6) consensus oligos were applied. Arrows denote the bands of altered mobility resulting from the interactions of nuclear proteins with the oligonucleotides.