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Table 1 Selection of candidate reference genes from microarray data.

From: Novel reference genes for quantifying transcriptional responses of Escherichia coli to protein overexpression by quantitative PCR

Gene symbol Definition Average intensity Primary multi-fun term
ssrA tmRNA 13.88 cell processes -> protection -> drug resistance/sensitivity
rnpB RnpB RNA; catalytic subunit of RNAse P 13.42 information transfer -> RNA related -> RNA degradation
pflC probable pyruvate formate lyase 2 activating enzyme 8.650 information transfer -> protein related -> posttranslational modification
hycG hydrogenase 3 and formate hydrogenlyase complex 8.09 metabolism -> energy metabolism, carbon -> anaerobic respiration
uxuB D-mannonate oxidoreductase 8.94 metabolism -> carbon utilization -> carbon compounds
ygjD YgjD, target for YeaZ protease 9.74 regulation -> type of regulation -> posttranscriptional -> proteases, cleavage of compounds
uxuR UxuR-fructuronate 8.53 information transfer -> RNA related -> Transcription related
yajR YajR MFS transporter 8.54 cell processes -> protection -> drug resistance/sensitivity
asnA asparagine synthetase A 8.78 metabolism -> biosynthesis of building blocks -> amino acids -> asparagine
hcaT HcaT MFS transporter 8.292 cell structure -> membrane
ldnT L-idonate/5-ketogluconate/gluconate transporter 8.991 cell structure -> membrane
yghB conserved inner membrane protein 9.01 cell structure -> membrane
ugpQ glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterase, cytosolic 9.16 metabolism -> central intermediary metabolism -> misc. glycerol metabolism
metL aspartate kinase/homoserine dehydrogenase 8.973 metabolism -> biosynthesis of building blocks -> amino acids -> homoserine
pbpC putative peptidoglycan enzyme 8.73 cell structure -> murein
ilvY IlvY DNA binding transcriptional dual regulator 9.320 information transfer -> RNA related -> Transcription related
phnN ribose 1,5-bisphosphokinase 8.05 metabolism -> metabolism of other compounds -> phosphorous metabolism
cysG uroporphyrin III C-methyltransferase [multifunctional] 8.219 metabolism -> biosynthesis of building blocks -> cofactors, small molecule carriers -> heme, porphyrine
cca tRNA nucleotidyltransferase 9.19 information transfer -> RNA related -> RNA modification
rrsA rrsA 16S ribosomal RNA 14.6 cell structure -> ribosomes
ihfB integration host factor β subunit   
  1. Meta-analysis of the expression profiles of 240 arrays relevant to recombinant protein production. Twenty candidate reference genes were selected based on the lowest CV. The log2 transformed values of the average signal intensities among the 240 arrays were shown as Mean. ihfB was included for comparison, and commonly used reference genes were highlighted.