FIZ1 is part of the regulatory protein complex on active photoreceptor-specific gene promoters in vivo
© Mali et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2008
Received: 18 January 2008
Accepted: 14 October 2008
Published: 14 October 2008
FIZ1 (Flt-3 Interacting Zinc-finger) is a broadly expressed protein of unknown function. We reported previously that in the mammalian retina, FIZ1 interacts with NRL (Neural-Retina Leucine-zipper), an essential transcriptional activator of rod photoreceptor-specific genes. The concentration of FIZ1 in the retina increases during photoreceptor terminal maturation, when two key transcription factors NRL and CRX (Cone-Rod Homeobox) become detectable on the promoters of photoreceptor-specific genes (i.e. Rhodopsin, Pde6b). To determine if FIZ1 is involved in regulating CRX-mediated transcriptional activation, we examined FIZ1 subcellular location in mouse neural retina, its ability to interact with CRX, and its association with CRX/NRL target genes.
FIZ1 is present in the nucleus of adult photoreceptors as well as other retinal neurons as shown by transmission electron microscopy with nano-gold labeling. FIZ1 and CRX were co-precipitated from retinal nuclear extracts with antibodies to either protein. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays revealed that FIZ1 is part of the protein complex on several rod and cone gene promoters, within photoreceptor cells of the mouse retina. FIZ1 complexes with CRX or NRL on known NRL- and CRX-responsive elements, as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assays with FIZ1 antibody. FIZ1 can directly bind to CRX, as demonstrated using yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays. Co-transfection assays demonstrated that FIZ1 increases CRX-mediated activation of Opsin test promoters. Quantitative ChIP analysis revealed an increased association of FIZ1 with the Rhodopsin promoter in adult (P-25) neural retina versus immature (P-3) neural retina. The quantity of transcriptionally active RNA Polymerase-II within the Rhodopsin gene (Rho) was significantly increased in the adult neural retina, compared to the immature retina.
FIZ1 directly interacts with CRX to enhance CRX's transactivation activity for target genes. Developmentally, in neural retina tissue, the increased association of FIZ1 with CRX target genes corresponds to an increased association of transcriptionally active Pol-II within the Rho gene. Together with previous findings, our results suggest that FIZ1 may act as a transcriptional co-regulator of photoreceptor-specific genes, recruited by at least two photoreceptor-specific transcription factors, CRX and NRL. Further studies are underway to elucidate the exact role of FIZ1 in photoreceptor gene expression, development and maintenance.
The mammalian retina is an excellent paradigm to study both differentiation and maturation of neurons from common precursor cells . Several transcription factors are clearly essential for photoreceptor development, and their mutations cause retinal degenerations: NRL, CRX, Otx2, Trβ2 (thyroid hormone receptor β2), and NR2E3 [2–6]. NRL, CRX and NR2E3 are present in photoreceptor progenitors quite early (E-14-18 in the mouse) when they influence photoreceptor type. While present in photoreceptor progenitors, they are not associated with the Rhodopsin (Rho) promoter in vivo, until these neurons begin to mature and Rho is expressed . Regulators of photoreceptor-specific gene promoters appear to form a transcriptional complex supported by their multiple protein-protein interactions. NRL and CRX can interact directly with each other, and they synergize to activate the Rho promoter in vitro . Likewise, NR2E3 interacts with CRX, and supports CRX-mediated activation of rod-specific gene promoters, and repression of cone-specific gene promoters [9, 10].
Through efforts to map protein interactions involved in regulating retinal gene expression, FIZ1 was found as a protein that interacts with NRL, and co-purifies with NRL from nuclear extracts . While FIZ1 mRNA is found in most human and mouse tissues, FIZ1 protein content is lower in immature postnatal mouse retina and its concentration increases ten-fold (after P-5) as retinal neurons mature to full functionality [11, 12]. Immunohistochemistry has revealed increasing FIZ1 concentration in photoreceptors, the inner plexiform layer, and the ganglion cell layer . Functionally, FIZ1 can synergize with NRL and CRX to increase the activation of the Rho and PDE6B (human rod Phosphodiesterase beta subunit) promoters in vitro .
Is FIZ1 recruited to the regulatory protein complex on the Rhodopsin promoter in vivo? To address this question, we wanted to determine the subcellular localization of FIZ1 in the neural retina at the ultrastructural level. We utilized transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with nano-gold labeling to accomplish this goal. To determine if FIZ1 is part of the protein complex, with NRL and CRX, on photoreceptor specific gene promoters in vivo, we employed electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) with retinal nuclear extracts, and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays.
Knowing that members of these transcriptional complexes (i.e. NRL, CRX, NR2E3) are typically involved in several protein-protein interactions, we carried out a set of assays to determine if FIZ1 could interact with CRX. These included yeast two-hybrid assays, GST pull-down assays, co-immunoprecipitation assays, and promoter activation assays with two test Opsin promoters (M- and S-Opsin). Lastly, we employed quantitative ChIP (Q-ChIP) assays to compare the association of FIZ1 with the Rho gene in immature retina (poised to transcription) versus mature retina (actively transcribed). A novel technique to directly monitor the transcriptional state of the Rho gene, based upon the presence of transcriptionally active RNA Polymerase-II within the gene, was adapted successfully for tissue analysis.
We report that FIZ1 is present in the nucleus of rod and cone photoreceptors as well as other mature retinal neurons. FIZ1 is part of the regulatory protein complex associated with active rod- and cone-specific gene promoters, but only in photoreceptor cells. Furthermore, FIZ1 can bind directly to CRX, and modify CRX's activation potential at two Opsin (M and S) promoters in vitro. Q-ChIP revealed that FIZ1 association with the Rho gene increases in maturing photoreceptors and this correlated with a greater amount of actively transcribing RNA Polymerase-II moving through the Rho gene.
Studies were carried out with the approval of Oakland University's Animal Care and Use Committee and Washington University's Animal Studies Committee. This research complied with the Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research, as adopted by the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology.
Nano-gold Labeling and Transmission Electron Microscopy
Nano-scale immunogold labeling was performed according to previously described methods that yield good sensitivity with mouse neural retina . Fixation, resin type, and sectioning, were optimized to preserve sufficient retinal morphology, with minimal masking of antigen. Mouse retinas, immature (P-5) and mature (P-35), were fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) for 4 hours and washed with phosphate buffered saline (PBS, pH 7.4) over night. Retinas were dehydrated with ascending N, N-dimethyl formamide and infiltrated with Lowicryl-K4M (Ted Pella Inc., Redding, CA) . Samples were oriented in gelatin capsules and polymerized under UV light for 3 hours. Thin sections (70 nm) were cut using an RMC ultra microtome MT 7000 and picked up on formvard-coated grids. Grids with retinal sections were floated with 1 drop of saturated sodium meta periodate for 1 hour at room temperature and washed with PBS containing 0.2% Tween-20 (PBS-T, 3 × 5 min). Samples were incubated with 0.1 M glycine solution for 15 minutes and washed with PBS-T (3 × 5 min). Samples were blocked for non-specific protein binding with 5% normal goat serum in PBS-T for 1 hour and incubated with anti-bFIZ1 antibody (1:100, 4°C), a rabbit IgG made to target domain-II-IV of FIZ1 (Proteintech Group Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) that was affinity purified and specific for FIZ1 in immunoblots of mammalian retina [11, 13]. After washing with PBS-T (3 × 5 min), samples were incubated with Nanogold-Fab'goat anti-rabbit-IgG nano gold (gold particle size 1.5 nm maximum, 1.4 nm average), 1:50 in PBS-T, 1 hour at 37°C (Nanoprobes, Yaphank, NY). Samples were washed with PBS-T (3 × 5 min) and post-fixed with 1% glutaraldehyde in PBS for 10 minutes. After washing with PBS-T (3 × 5 min) followed by distilled water, nano-gold particles were enhanced with silver, and samples were double stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate . Digital photographs of samples were captured using a Philips Morgani™-268 Transmission Electron Microscope, fitted with FEI Electron Optics (Eindhoven, The Netherlands).
Co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) from bovine retina nuclear extracts
Preparation of bovine retina nuclear extract and Co-IP were accomplished as previously described [11, 16]. Briefly, bovine retinal nuclear extract (300 μg protein) was incubated with anti-bFIZ1 or anti-CRX polyclonal antibodies overnight at 4°C with gentle mixing. Both antibodies were specific for FIZ1 or CRX in immunoblots of neural retina. Anti-bFIZ1 was the rabbit IgG, targeted to domain-II-IV of FIZ1 (Proteintech Group Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Anti-CRX was an affinity purified rabbit polyclonal antibody (Anti-CRX-p119b) targeting amino acids 119–141 of mouse CRX (Proteintech Group Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) . The immunoprecipitates were recovered with protein A-Sepharose (GE Healthcare), washed with PBS, 1% Triton X-100, and proteins subjected to SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting with the appropriate antibodies: anti-bFIZ1 (1:3000) or anti-CRX (1:2000). Blots were visualized using the ECL plus detection reagents (GE Healthcare).
Chromatin Immuno-Precipitation (ChIP)
PCR primers for chromatin immunoprecipitation assays
Anti sense primer
-200 to +64
-201 to +56
-28 to +95)
-216 to -23
-396 to -202
-547 to -82
-139 to +67
Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA)
EMSA was performed with a gel-shift assay system according to the manufacturer's instructions (Promega). Nuclear extracts from bovine retina were prepared as previously described [11, 16, 20]. Short double-stranded oligonucleotides, for probes, were synthesized for three conserved cis-elements from the mammalian Rhodopsin proximal promoter region that are known to bind NRL or CRX: the NRL-response element, NRE, (5'-CAGATGCTGATTCAGCCAGGAGCT); the CRX-binding element, BAT-1, (5'-GCAGCAGTGAGGATTAATATGATTAATAACG); and the CRX-binding element, Ret-4, (5'-GGGAGCTTAGGGAGGGGAGG). These probes were end-labeled with T4 polynucleotide kinase (10 Units/μL) and [γ-32P]ATP (3000 Ci/mmol at 10 mCi/mL). 32P-labeled probes (20 fmoles, 105 cpm) were incubated with retinal nuclear extract (5 μg protein) in binding buffer (20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5, 100 mM NaCl, 2 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EDTA, 1 mM DTT, 1 μg poly-dI-dC, 8% glycerol) for 30 minutes at 21°C. For competition controls, unlabeled ("cold") probe (100x) was incubated with nuclear extracts for 30 minutes at room temperature before addition of 32P-labeled oligonucleotide. For FIZ1 antigen-antibody tests, antibody to FIZ1 (anti-GST-bFIZ1) or control (preimmune rabbit IgG serum) was added after the incubation of 32P-labeled oligonucleotide with nuclear extracts. The samples were loaded on a pre-run (150 volts, 30 min) 4% non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel (1 mm, 16 cm × 18 cm) in 0.5% TBE, at 150 volts for 5 hours. After electrophoresis, the gel was dried and exposed to X-ray film (Pierce) for autoradiography.
Yeast two-hybrid assay
The bait plasmid, pHybLex/Zeo-bFIZ1 was prepared by sub-cloning domains II-IV of bovine FIZ1 into the pHybLex/Zeo vector (Invitrogen). The pACT2-bCRX vector provided expression of Gal4-AD-CRX protein. Transformation of L40 yeast and interaction assays were previously described . Bait strains were prepared with the vectors: pHybLex/Zeo-bFIZ1 (expressing LexA-bFIZ1), pHybLex/Zeo-Laminin (LexA-Laminin), and pHybLex/Zeo (LexA). Bait strains were transformed with the desired prey-vector: pACT2-bCRX (Gal4-AD-bovine-CRX) or pACT2 (Gal4-AD).
GST pull-down assays
The bacterial expression plasmid, pDest15-bFiz II-IV, for preparation of GST-bFIZ1 on glutathione-Sepharose was described previously . For a GST control, pDest15-GST was utilized; a construct prepared by removal of FIZ1 sequence from pDest15-bFiz II-IV. 35S-CRX was prepared using the TNT Quick Coupled Transcription/Translation kit (Promega) with 35S-methione (> 1000 μCi/mmol; GE Health) and pcDNA3.1/HisC-bCRX as template. GST pull-down assays were carried out as previously described using glutathione-Sepharose-bound GST or GST-bFIZ1 protein (100 μg) in binding buffer (20 mM Tris-Cl, pH 8.0, 150 mM NaCl, 0.2% Nonidet P-40). After washes, the bound proteins were denatured in 60 μL of 2× SDS sample buffer (100°C, 5 min), subjected to SDS-PAGE, and processed for fluorography (GE Healthcare).
M- and S-Opsin promoter activation assays
Transfection and promoter activation assays were performed as previously described . CV1 cells (obtained directly from the ATCC) were incubated at 37°C, 5% CO2, in MEM-alpha with 10% FBS, and penicillin/streptomycin. Expression plasmids for bovine CRX (pcDNA3.1/HisC.bCRX) and bovine FIZ1 (pDest26-bFiz1) were described previously [8, 11]. The reporter, Mop250-Luc, contained the human M-Opsin promoter (-253 to +38 bp) sub-cloned into the pGL3-basic vector (Promega) . The reporter Sop552-Luc, contained a mouse S-Opsin minimal promoter  sub-cloned into the pGL3-basic vector (from Dr. Anand Swaroop). Transfection mixes contained 555 ng/mL (on cells) of a reporter plasmid (Mop250-Luc, or Sop552-Luc) and 19 ng/mL of the Renilla Luciferase construct, pRL-CMV (Promega). Triplicate samples (per experiment) were co-transfected with expression vectors for CRX (83 ng/mL) and FIZ1 (165 ng/mL). Firefly- and Renilla-Luciferase activities were measured with Dual-Reporter Luminescence Reagent, 48 h post-transfection (Promega). Experiments were repeated three times, and were analyzed independently using ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer post-analysis . Fold activation was relative to the background with empty expression vectors, set as 1-fold.
Quantitative ChIP (Q-ChIP) assays of FIZ1 and Pol-II Binding
PCR primers for quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation assays
Anti sense primer
+3051 to +3199
-711 to -570
-12 to +130
4.4 × 106 bp downstream of Rho
Ct values from triplicate real-time PCR assays were transformed using a standard curve of genomic DNA with known copy numbers, to obtain precipitated copy numbers for each gene test region. To determine the relative PCR efficiency, between different gene regions, triplicate assays were run using non-precipitated genomic DNA (input). Copy numbers of DNA detected were then normalized for the amount of chromatin input, the proportion of ChIP DNA used for Q-PCR, and then for relative primer efficiency. Final results were scaled as copies of DNA detected per 1000 cells (of input DNA).
TEM-immunogold labeling of FIZ1 in mature retinal neurons
To visualize the subcellular location of FIZ1 in neural retina, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with nano-gold labeling was performed on P-5 and P-35 (young adult) mouse neural retina. Photoreceptors in the P-5 retina lack outer-segments and the increased expression of genes required for light detection and visual transduction (i.e. Rho) has just started at this time. Retinal neurons are not mature at this time and synaptogenesis has not yet occurred. The retina becomes functional by P-21, when Rhodopsin content has almost reached its adult maximal level. Outer segments (OS) are present at this time, and continue to elongate slightly to about P-31. Fixation and the type of embedding resin were optimized to minimize the antigen masking that occurs in typical plastic embedding for TEM-based morphology analysis. Stage P-5 and P-35 neural retina samples were processed simultaneously throughout the complete procedure.
Nano-gold labeling of FIZ1 protein was visualized by TEM in the adult (P-35) retina (Fig. 1C–L). FIZ1 protein was present in cell nuclei of the ONL (photoreceptor), INL and GCL layers. Both rod and cone photoreceptor nuclei were positive for FIZ1 labeling, which was throughout the nucleus (Fig. 1C, D). FIZ1 was also detected in the inner-segment region of photoreceptors (Fig. 1F), but was absent from the outer-segments (Fig. 1H). FIZ1 antibody also labeled cell nuclei in the GCL and INL (Fig. 1I, K). Negative controls, using the same FIZ1 antibody pre-blocked with a six-fold molar excess of antigen, displayed a loss of FIZ1 labeling (Fig. 1E, G, J, L).
Co-IP of FIZ1 and CRX from retinal nuclear extracts
Chromatin immunoprecipitation of FIZ1 at photoreceptor-specific gene promoters
To determine if the association of FIZ1 with these gene promoters was specific to photoreceptor neurons, additional ChIP experiments were carried out using another antibody to FIZ1 (anti-FIZ1-1) that recognizes a conserved epitope sequence in domain-I of mouse, human and bovine FIZ1 (Fig. 4B). Neural retina tissue from two mouse strains, rodless/coneless and wild-type, were compared. Rodless/coneless mouse retinas still possessed non-photoreceptor neurons of the inner nuclear layer (bipolar, amacrine and horizontal cells) and the ganglion cell layer (ganglion and displaced amacrine cells); only the outer nuclear layer (photoreceptors) was absent. FIZ1 occupied the promoter regions of photoreceptor-specific genes in wild-type mice, but not in rodless/coneless mice (Fig. 4B). FIZ1 did not occupy the promoter region of mGluR6, which is expressed in bipolar cells, in either retina type. These results suggest that FIZ1 association with photoreceptor-specific gene promoters is specific to photoreceptor neurons.
FIZ1 presence in NRL/CRX protein complexes bound to their responsive DNA motifs
Likewise, EMSA was performed with two other probes, BAT-1 and Ret-4 , derived from the Rho promoter containing core sequences bound by the CRX Homeodomain (HD) (Figure 5-B and 5-C). BAT-1 has two elements that closely match the consensus binding sites for the K50-type HD (TAATCC and TAAGCT) [29–31], while Ret-4 has only one low affinity site for CRX. Our EMSA assays with both of these probes produced characteristic patterns reported previously with recombinant CRX-HD .
Figure 5B shows EMSA results with the BAT-1 probe and bovine retina nuclear protein extract. Two major shifted bands were seen, correspond to the "dimer" and monomer" of CRX reported previously  (indicated by arrowheads). In addition, we also detected a third protein complex running at a higher position than the two major CRX bands. Addition of an FIZ1 antibody to the pre-bound protein-DNA complexes abolished this third shifted band (indicated by the arrow) without affecting the two lower bands. Control IgG (preimmune, rabbit IgG) did not have any effect on the shifted bands. In contract, EMSA with the Ret-4 probe showed a doublet band shifted with retinal nuclear protein (Fig. 5C), corresponding to a protein complex containing CRX bound to a low affinity recognition site. This band (arrow) was efficiently removed by treatment with the FIZ1 antibody, suggesting that FIZ1 is a part of the CRX protein complex. Control IgG (preimmune, rabbit IgG) did not remove this band shift.
Direct interaction of FIZ1 with CRX
GST pull-down assays confirmed the direct interaction of FIZ1 and CRX (Fig. 6C). 35S-CRX was tested for binding to glutathione-Sepharose-GST-bFIZ1 compared to the glutathione-Sepharose-GST control. Assays contained equivalent amounts of GST and GST-bFIZ1. 35S-CRX bound to glutathione-Sepharose-GST-bFIZ1 when compared to glutathione-Sepharose-GST.
FIZ1 interaction potentiates CRX-mediated promoter activation
CRX alone activated the S-Opsin promoter 7-fold (p < 0.01) (Fig. 7B). FIZ1 and NRL alone had no significant effect. As for the M-Opsin test promoter, FIZ1 combined with CRX more than doubled CRX's activation of the test promoter (p < 0.01).
Association of FIZ1 with the Rhodopsin gene correlates to the increased presence of transcriptionally active RNA Polymerase-II in vivo
ChIP results indicated that FIZ1 is present at several photoreceptor-specific promoters in vivo; therefore, we next asked if the quantity of FIZ1 present at the Rho promoter is increased in adult neural retina (P25) compared to P3 neural retina? Rho is a fundamental marker of photoreceptor maturation; therefore, Q-ChIP analysis was performed to compare the binding of both FIZ1 and actively transcribing RNA-polymerase-II (Pol-II-S2) at the Rho gene. FIZ1 ChIP amplicons targeted the Rho proximal promoter region, while Pol-II-S2 ChIP amplicons targeted a site within Intron-2 of the gene.
The relative binding of transcriptionally active RNA polymerase-II (Pol-II-S2), monitored at a position about 3 Kb downstream from the Rho transcriptional start site, was significantly higher in the mature neural retina. Pol-II-S2 association was 23-fold higher on chromatin from P-25 neural retina compared to P-3 neural retina (Fig. 8B). There was no significant difference in the association of Pol-II-S2 in the untranslated control region (Untr6) comparing P-3 to P-25 neural retina.
Several lines of initial evidence have suggested that the FIZ1 protein can exist in both the cell's nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments in cultured cells and in neural retina [11–13]. We desired to visualize FIZ1 location in the neural retina at the subcellular level. Current improvements to TEM-immunogold techniques, particularly the use of smaller nano-gold antibody conjugates and silver-enhancement, provide clear visualization of nano-gold particles and lower background in electron micrographs of mammalian retina . Ultra-thin sections also expose the dense chromatin matrix of the very compact nuclei of photoreceptor cells in the outer-nuclear layer.
Nano-gold TEM micrographs show that FIZ1 protein is present in the nuclei of all mature neurons in the ganglion, inner-nuclear and outer-nuclear layers (i.e. photoreceptors). This included nuclei of both rod and cone photoreceptors. Labeling of FIZ1 was present throughout the entire area of photoreceptor nuclei. While previous immunofluorescence study showed a distribution of NRL throughout rod-photoreceptor nuclei in human retina , the photoreceptors of nocturnal species (mouse) have compact nuclei with an inverted pattern of chromatin density. In mouse, dense chromatin fills the central nucleus, leaving lower density chromatin at the periphery. Evidence is mounting that this periphery corresponds to euchromatin, where active photoreceptor-specific genes are located. Fluorescent labeling of the mouse Rho gene has demonstrated a location in the periphery of most photoreceptor nuclei .
Some immunohistochemistry reports show detection of CRX throughout photoreceptor nuclei (mouse) [34, 35], while immunofluorescence labeling with confocal imaging shows an intense peripheral labeling for CRX [9, 33]. Immunofluorescence of NR2E3 in the mouse retina also shows an intense labeling in the nuclear periphery [9, 10, 36]. Mice expressing a fusion protein of GFP with OTX2, another transriptional activator present in photoreceptors, display a ring-like distribution of the GFP tag in their photoreceptors . It is clear that this region correlates with the expression of active genes in mouse photoreceptors.
Recent reports also indicate that NRL and CRX have roles in the transcriptional repression of cone-specific genes in addition to their roles as transcriptional activators of rod-specific genes. The ectopic expression of NRL in mouse cone progenitors, results in the conversion of cone-precursors to rod photoreceptors . CRX is also present on cone-opsin promoters in rod photoreceptor cells, and NR2E3 inhibits the CRX-mediated activation of cone-opsin promoters, in vitro[9, 10]. The later could explain why NR2E3 deficient mice develop extra cone-opsin expressing photoreceptors in the form of hybrid cone-rod photoreceptors . As such, NRL and CRX, two transcription factors that can bind FIZ1, could recruit FIZ1 to both euchromatin and heterochromatin regions of mouse photoreceptors.
Significant labeling of FIZ1 was also present in the inner segments of photoreceptors in mature retina. The packing of photoreceptor cells to high density is facilitated by the location of ribosomes and mitochondria in the inner-segments. As the location for much of the protein synthesis in photoreceptors, many proteins should be present in this region. We did not detect FIZ1 by immunogold staining in ultra thin sections of P-5 retina, which is likely due to the low sensitivity of this particular technique and a much lower level of FIZ1 protein in P-5 retina. This is consistent with previous findings, showing that FIZ1 concentration in immature neural retina is less than 10% of that found in the mature tissue . The inability to detect this lower level of FIZ1 does not indicate that FIZ1 is absent. The more sensitive Q-Chip analysis confirmed this. FIZ1 association with the Rho promoter at P-3 was much lower than at P-25; however, the level of FIZ1 at P-3 was detectable above the background, as represented by an untranslated control region on the same chromosome (Chr-6).
Previously we have shown that FIZ1 could alter activation of a Rho test-promoter, suggesting that FIZ1 could have some direct or indirect interactions with CRX in addition to NRL . CRX is present in all rod and cone photoreceptors, placing FIZ1 in a biologically relevant location for interaction with CRX. Our co-IP experiments from bovine retina nuclear extract, confirmed that native FIZ1 and CRX could be isolated as part of the same nuclear protein complex. Co-IP with antibody to FIZ1 captured CRX from nuclear protein preparations. Conversely, antibody to CRX co-precipitated FIZ1.
Peng and Chen (2005) have reported that NRL, CRX and NR2E3 are part of the transcriptional complex on several photoreceptor-specific genes in vivo, including Rho, Pde6b, Rbp3, M-Opsin and S-Opsin . Our chromatin immunoprecipitation results indicated that FIZ1 is also associated with the proximal promoter regions of these genes. Our results here, and those previously reported, indicate that FIZ1 can alter the activation potential of NRL and/or CRX at four of these promoters in vitro: Rho, PDE6B, M-Opsin, and S-Opsin. Additionally, ChIP analysis found that FIZ1 occupies the regulatory complex of photoreceptor-specific genes in wild-type retina, but not in rodless/coneless mice (rd1). This result indicates that FIZ1 recruitment to the regulatory protein complex at photoreceptor-specific genes is an event specific to adult photoreceptors. While FIZ1 is present in bipolar and ganglion cells, it is not associated with photoreceptor-specific gene promoters in these neurons.
Our EMSA results indicate that FIZ1 is also a component of retinal nuclear protein complexes that can bind to the NRL-binding element (NRE), and the two CRX-binding elements (BAT-1, Ret-4). NRL binds to an extended AP-1 like element, the NRE, in the Rho gene's proximal promoter region [21, 40, 41]. The CRX homeodomain can bind to two promoter elements, BAT-1 and Ret-4, that flank the NRE . Historically, the Ret-4 element was used in a yeast 1-hybrid survey to discover CRX from a bovine retina library .
Rehemtulla et al., demonstrated that the NRE probe is shifted into two major complexes with bovine nuclear protein extract, and the higher shifted complex can be removed by antibody to NRL . In our tests here, FIZ1 antibody was also able to remove the larger probe/protein complex. While this element is relatively short and will be covered by NRL, stable protein-protein interactions could involve non-DNA binding proteins in the overall complex. FIZ1 is capable of direct and stable interaction with NRL in vitro; therefore, FIZ1 may associate with the NRE element indirectly through its interaction with NRL. This would be consistent with the fact that the higher shifted band, diminished by incubation with antibody to FIZ1, is also disrupted by antibody to NRL .
Similarly, it is conceivable for FIZ1 to associate indirectly with CRX-binding sites (BAT-1 and Ret-4) by association with CRX. BAT-1 has two core elements that can bind the K50-type HD of CRX [29, 30]. Consistent with the presence of two potential binding sites, Chen et al., have demonstrated that the BAT-1 probe can be shifted into two major bands by recombinant CRX-HD . The BAT-1 site is crucial for CRX mediated activation of the Rhodopsin proximal promoter .
Here, using bovine retina nuclear extract, two major shifted bands were also seen, similar to the pattern reported for recombinant CRX-HD. It is possible that these major shifted bands represent the association of one and two molecules of CRX. In our case, a third higher shifting faint band was removed after complex formation by treatment with FIZ1 antibody, while the two major bands remained. This suggests FIZ1 was not required for formation of the smaller complexes.
In contrast to BAT-1, the Ret-4 probe contains one K50-type HD binding element, and shifts to a doublet band with bovine retina nuclear extract [5, 42]. Our EMSA here, with bovine retina nuclear extract, also resulted in a single major shifted complex. This intense band was efficiently removed by FIZ1 antibody, suggesting the presence of FIZ1. The disruption of only a higher shifting faint band with the BAT-1 probe, suggests that there could also be a different affinity for FIZ1 between a CRX dimer and monomer. This is interesting in the context of the Rho promoter, where the potential CRX-dimer binding site (BAT-1) and the monomer-binding site (Ret-4) flank the NRE site.
What could be the benefit of two different CRX-binding sites in such a small region? There is evidence that several other proteins interact with CRX at the Rho promoter, including NRL, NR2E3 and BAF [8, 9, 34]. Two CRX binding elements, binding in different stoichiometry, may provide a mechanism to have different CRX molecules participating in different protein interactions.
Our Co-IP and EMSA results indicated that FIZ1 might interact directly with CRX; therefore we explored this with yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays. Both assay methods confirmed the ability for a direct and stable interaction of FIZ1 and CRX in vitro. This suggests that FIZ1 has at least two interaction partners in photoreceptor neurons (NRL and CRX) that could recruit it into transcription factor complexes on photoreceptor specific genes. Multiple protein-protein interactions are consistent with our knowledge of other proteins that complex at the Rho promoter. CRX participates in interactions with NRL and NR2E3, resulting in activation of rod genes and repression of cone genes [8, 9]. NR2E3 also has multiple interactions, including CRX and the circadian clock protein NR1D1 .
While we previously demonstrated that FIZ1 could modify NRL's transactivation potential at a PDE6B test promoter, it only modified transactivation potential at the Rho promoter when both NRL and CRX were present . To examine FIZ1 effect on CRX, we used two test promoters that are activated by CRX, but not NRL: M- and S-Opsin . Alone, FIZ1 effect on the activation of either promoter was insignificant compared to empty vectors. However, FIZ1 was able to modify CRX's transactivation potential at both test promoters by over 100% of the activity seen with CRX alone. It is possible that FIZ1's presence could influence the overall activation potential of promoter complexes involving CRX.
The scale of FIZ1's effect on CRX-mediated activation is biologically significant. Mature photoreceptors must continue to precisely regulate the average expression of genes like Rho to maintain viable photoreceptors. In mouse neural retina, Rhodopsin mRNA levels vary at least 25% in a circadian fashion, to coordinate with the rhythm of outer-segment formation . Heterozygous knockout of Rho reduces its average expression by 50%, which results in a slow degeneration of photoreceptors. Likewise, transgenic mice with elevated expression of normal Rhodopsin, also have a slow photoreceptor degeneration .
Developmentally, the increased availability of FIZ1 does concur with maturation of the neural retina and the activation of many photoreceptor-specific genes. While mRNAs for M- and S-Opsin are detected a few days earlier than for Rho , the initial formation of photoreceptor outer-segments of both rods and cones begins in the maturation period. This increases the demand for all three Opsin proteins as well as Pde6b, Arrestin, and other phototransduction proteins.
Test promoters are not perfect models for native gene promoters in their chromatin context, and FIZ1 can promote or inhibit NRL/CRX mediated activation of the Rho promoter in vitro, depending on the relative amount of FIZ1 compared to NRL and CRX [11, 13]. With this in mind, it would be premature to state unequivocally whether FIZ1's role is that of promoting activation of these promoters in vivo, or if it may have a role in maintaining a precise level of their expression in the mature retina.
Our ChIP analysis indicates that FIZ1 is part of the regulatory protein complex on genes that become more active in adult photoreceptors. Rho is a fundamental marker of photoreceptor-specific gene expression; its expression increases dramatically as photoreceptor neurons mature to the adult state . Is there an increase in the relative quantity of FIZ1 recruited to the Rho promoter complex in the adult retina? This would be expected if a prior association of NRL and CRX recruits FIZ1. Relative association of FIZ1 at the Rho promoter region was 7-fold greater in adult neural retina (P-25), as compared to the immature tissue (P-3) when only a small fraction of photoreceptor precursors are starting to express Rho.
The increased association of FIZ1 at the Rho promoter also correlated with a 23-fold increase in the amount of actively transcribing Pol-II in adult neural retina (P-25) compared to the immature tissue (P-3). The total Pol-II associated with the Rho proximal-promoter region increases during maturation of the mouse retina . While the presence of Pol-II in the promoter region often correlates to transcription, it is possible for a gene to be pre-loaded with inactive Pol-II, as recently reported for many genes in human embryonic stem cells . Our assays here specifically monitored actively transcribing Pol-II (serine-2 phosphorylated) in intron-2, about 3 Kb downstream of the Rhodopsin gene's transcription start site.
The increased expression of several photoreceptor genes, during maturation of photoreceptors, certainly involves regulation at the level of transcription. Rhodopsin and Arrestin mRNA levels increase dramatically during this process, and this is documented in mammalian species that complete retinal development postnatal (mouse) or prenatal (bovine) [44, 47]. A previous study of bovine retinal development, using nuclear run-on assays, suggested that elevated transcription has a prominent role during this maturation period . Our quantitative measurement of transcriptionally active Pol-II within the Rho's transcript region, confirms that the amount of activated Pol-II enzyme is elevated.
Recently, Peng and Chen (2007) demonstrated that CRX and NRL are not present on the Rhodopsin promoter until the start of Rho expression, even though both transcription factors are abundant in rod-precursors before this time . This suggests that additional factors are involved with the formation of a stable regulatory protein complex on these promoters as the retina matures to the adult state. Our results suggest that FIZ1 is one of the additional proteins recruited by NRL and CRX to these transcription factor complexes, and both its bioavailability and association at the Rho promoter are increased substantially as the neural retina matures. While FIZ1 does not appear to be a direct transcriptional activator, it can significantly alter the CRX-mediated activation of cone Opsin promoters in vitro.
In a mouse hematopoietic cell line, engineered to over express FLT-3 (FMN like tyrosine kinase) and FIZ1, FIZ1 association with FLT-3 was reported to increase upon receptor activation. While the downstream consequences are not known, those studies also found FIZ1 to be present in both the cytoplasm and nucleus . Our results here showing FIZ1 recruitment to gene promoter complexes, suggest a potential role in signal transduction between receptors and genes. While the expression of FIZ1 is ubiquitous in mammals, the reported interactions thus far are tissue specific. Additional tissue-specific interactions await discovery for organs not yet explored regarding FIZ1 function. The data gathered so far justifies the production of animal models for over and under expression of FIZ1, which will be required to explore its tissue-specific functions.
Q-ChIP was successfully applied to neural retina tissue to directly detect an increase in the transcriptionally active form of RNA-Polymerase-II moving through Rho's transcriptional region. This analysis provides a novel way to directly quantify the activation state of a gene in the context of neural development, and is applicable to any gene of interest. Finally, we note that the presence of FIZ1 in the nuclei of all mature retinal neurons suggests that FIZ1 may also be recruited to non-photoreceptor specific genes that become active in the adult retina. Further studies to find more target genes for the FIZ1 protein will shed light on this possibility.
(Flt-3 Interacting Zinc-finger)
(Neural Retina Leucine-zipper)
- Rho :
- Pde6b :
(Phosphodiesterase 6 beta subunit)
(PNR/photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor)
- Rpb3 :
(Inter-Retinoid Binding Protein)
- GluR6 :
(metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype-6)
(FMS like tyrosine kinase -3).
We thank: Dr. Donald Zack (Johns Hopkins) and Dr. Anand Swaroop (National Eye Institute, NIH) for the provision of constructs, Richard Schlaf & Nuha Jamil (Oakland University students) for assisting with promoter activation assays and production of GST-bFIZ1 respectively, Dr. Vassilios Alexiadis & Dr. Mary Harper (Genpathway Inc.) for discussions regarding active Pol-II analysis, and the OU Biomedical Research Support Facility (Clifford Snitgen, Janet Schofding, Joyce Schram). This work was supported by NIH grants: EY014626 (K.M.), EY012543 (S.C.), and EY014803 (Oakland University Eye Research Institute).
- Cepko CL, Austin CP, Yang X, Alexiades M, Ezzeddine D: Cell fate determination in the vertebrate retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996, 93(2):589-595. 10.1073/pnas.93.2.589.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bessant DA, Payne AM, Mitton KP, Wang QL, Swain PK, Plant C, Bird AC, Zack DJ, Swaroop A, Bhattacharya SS: A mutation in NRL is associated with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa. Nat Genet 1999, 21(4):355-356. 10.1038/7678.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Freund CL, Gregory-Evans CY, Furukawa T, Papaioannou M, Looser J, Ploder L, Bellingham J, Ng D, Herbrick JA, Duncan A, et al.: Cone-rod dystrophy due to mutations in a novel photoreceptor-specific homeobox gene (CRX) essential for maintenance of the photoreceptor. Cell 1997, 91(4):543-553. 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80440-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mears AJ, Kondo M, Swain PK, Takada Y, Bush RA, Saunders TL, Sieving PA, Swaroop A: Nrl is required for rod photoreceptor development. Nat Genet 2001, 29(4):447-452. 10.1038/ng774.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen S, Wang QL, Xu S, Liu Y, Wang Y, Zack DJ: Functional analysis of cone-rod homeobox (CRX) mutations associated with retinal dystrophy. Hum Mol Genet 2002, 11: 873-884. 10.1093/hmg/11.8.873.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haider NB, Jacobson SG, Cideciyan AV, Swiderski R, Streb LM, Searby C, Beck G, Hockey R, Hanna DB, Gorman S, et al.: Mutation of a nuclear receptor gene, NR2E3, causes enhanced S cone syndrome, a disorder of retinal cell fate. Nat Genet 2000, 24(2):127-131. 10.1038/72777.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peng GH, Chen S: Crx activates opsin transcription by recruiting HAT-containing co-activators and promoting histone acetylation. Hum Mol Genet 2007, 16(20):3433-3452. 10.1093/hmg/ddm200.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mitton KP, Swain PK, Chen S, Xu S, Zack DJ, Swaroop A: The leucine zipper of NRL interacts with the CRX homeodomain. A possible mechanism of transcriptional synergy in rhodopsin regulation. J Biol Chem 2000, 275(38):29794-29799. 10.1074/jbc.M003658200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peng GH, Ahmad O, Ahmad F, Liu J, Chen S: The photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor Nr2e3 interacts with Crx and exerts opposing effects on the transcription of rod versus cone genes. Hum Mol Genet 2005, 14(6):747-764. 10.1093/hmg/ddi070.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen J, Rattner A, Nathans J: The rod photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor Nr2e3 represses transcription of multiple cone-specific genes. J Neurosci 2005, 25(1):118-129. 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3571-04.2005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mitton KP, Swain PK, Khanna H, Dowd M, Apel IJ, Swaroop A: Interaction of retinal bZIP transcription factor NRL with Flt3-interacting zinc-finger protein Fiz1: possible role of Fiz1 as a transcriptional repressor. Hum Mol Genet 2003, 12(4):365-373. 10.1093/hmg/ddg035.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wolf I, Rohrschneider LR: Fiz1, a novel zinc finger protein interacting with the receptor tyrosine kinase Flt3. J Biol Chem 1999, 274(30):21478-21484. 10.1074/jbc.274.30.21478.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mali RS, Zhang X, Hoerauf W, Doyle D, Devitt J, Loffreda-Wren J, Mitton KP: FIZ1 is expressed during photoreceptor maturation, and synergizes with NRL and CRX at rod-specific promoters in vitro. Exp Eye Res 2007, 84(2):349-360. 10.1016/j.exer.2006.10.009.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goldberg AF, Ritter LM, Khattree N, Peachey NS, Fariss RN, Dang L, Yu M, Bottrell AR: An intramembrane glutamic acid governs peripherin/rds function for photoreceptor disk morphogenesis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007, 48(7):2975-2986. 10.1167/iovs.07-0049.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Altman LG, Schneider BG, Papermaster DS: Rapid embedding of tissues in Lowicryl K4M for immunoelectron microscopy. J Histochem Cytochem 1984, 32(11):1217-1223.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lahiri DK, Ge Y: Electrophoretic mobility shift assay for the detection of specific DNA-protein complex in nuclear extracts from the cultured cells and frozen autopsy human brain tissue. Brain Res Brain Res Protoc 2000, 5(3):257-265. 10.1016/S1385-299X(00)00021-0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Peng GH, Chen S: Chromatin immunoprecipitation identifies photoreceptor transcription factor targets in mouse models of retinal degeneration: new findings and challenges. Vis Neurosci 2005, 22(5):575-586. 10.1017/S0952523805225063.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Carter-Dawson LD, LaVail MM, Sidman RL: Differential effect of the rd mutation on rods and cones in the mouse retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 1978, 17(6):489-498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bowes C, Li T, Danciger M, Baxter LC, Applebury ML, Farber DB: Retinal degeneration in the rd mouse is caused by a defect in the beta subunit of rod cGMP-phosphodiesterase. Nature 1990, 347(6294):677-680. 10.1038/347677a0.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cheng H, Khanna H, Oh EC, Hicks D, Mitton KP, Swaroop A: Photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor NR2E3 functions as a transcriptional activator in rod photoreceptors. Hum Mol Genet 2004, 13(15):1563-1575. 10.1093/hmg/ddh173.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rehemtulla A, Warwar R, Kumar R, Ji X, Zack DJ, Swaroop A: The basic motif-leucine zipper transcription factor Nrl can positively regulate rhodopsin gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996, 93(1):191-195. 10.1073/pnas.93.1.191.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Akimoto M, Filippova E, Gage PJ, Zhu X, Craft CM, Swaroop A: Transgenic mice expressing Cre-recombinase specifically in M- or S-cone photoreceptors. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2004, 45(1):42-47. 10.1167/iovs.03-0804.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Labhart P, Karmakar S, Salicru EM, Egan BS, Alexiadis V, O'Malley BW, Smith CL: Identification of target genes in breast cancer cells directly regulated by the SRC-3/AIB1 coactivator. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2005, 102(5):1339-1344. 10.1073/pnas.0409578102.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ferguson GD, Jensen-Pergakes K, Wilkey C, Jhaveri U, Richard N, Verhelle D, De Parseval LM, Corral LG, Xie W, Morris CL, et al.: Immunomodulatory drug CC-4047 is a cell-type and stimulus-selective transcriptional inhibitor of cyclooxygenase 2. J Clin Immunol 2007, 27(2):210-220. 10.1007/s10875-007-9070-6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Alexiadis V, Ballestas ME, Sanchez C, Winokur S, Vedanarayanan V, Warren M, Ehrlich M: RNAPol-ChIP analysis of transcription from FSHD-linked tandem repeats and satellite DNA. Biochim Biophys Acta 2007, 1769(1):29-40.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Krishnamurthy S, He X, Reyes-Reyes M, Moore C, Hampsey M: Ssu72 Is an RNA polymerase II CTD phosphatase. Mol Cell 2004, 14(3):387-394. 10.1016/S1097-2765(04)00235-7.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Palancade B, Bellier S, Almouzni G, Bensaude O: Incomplete RNA polymerase II phosphorylation in Xenopus laevis early embryos. J Cell Sci 2001, 114(Pt 13):2483-2489.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Waterston RH, Lindblad-Toh K, Birney E, Rogers J, Abril JF, Agarwal P, Agarwala R, Ainscough R, Alexandersson M, An P, et al.: Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome. Nature 2002, 420(6915):520-562. 10.1038/nature01262.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Treisman J, Gonczy P, Vashishtha M, Harris E, Desplan C: A single amino acid can determine the DNA binding specificity of homeodomain proteins. Cell 1989, 59(3):553-562. 10.1016/0092-8674(89)90038-X.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baird-Titus JM, Clark-Baldwin K, Dave V, Caperelli CA, Ma J, Rance M: The solution structure of the native K50 Bicoid homeodomain bound to the consensus TAATCC DNA-binding site. J Mol Biol 2006, 356(5):1137-1151. 10.1016/j.jmb.2005.12.007.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chaney BA, Clark-Baldwin K, Dave V, Ma J, Rance M: Solution structure of the K50 class homeodomain PITX2 bound to DNA and implications for mutations that cause Rieger syndrome. Biochemistry 2005, 44(20):7497-7511. 10.1021/bi0473253.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Swain PK, Hicks D, Mears AJ, Apel IJ, Smith JE, John SK, Hendrickson A, Milam AH, Swaroop A: Multiple phosphorylated isoforms of NRL are expressed in rod photoreceptors. J Biol Chem 2001, 276(39):36824-36830. 10.1074/jbc.M105855200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Helmlinger D, Hardy S, Abou-Sleymane G, Eberlin A, Bowman AB, Gansmuller A, Picaud S, Zoghbi HY, Trottier Y, Tora L, et al.: Glutamine-expanded ataxin-7 alters TFTC/STAGA recruitment and chromatin structure leading to photoreceptor dysfunction. PLoS Biol 2006, 4(3):e67. 10.1371/journal.pbio.0040067.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang X, Xu S, Rivolta C, Li LY, Peng GH, Swain PK, Sung CH, Swaroop A, Berson EL, Dryja TP, et al.: Barrier to autointegration factor interacts with the cone-rod homeobox and represses its transactivation function. J Biol Chem 2002, 277(45):43288-43300. 10.1074/jbc.M207952200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lerner LE, Peng GH, Gribanova YE, Chen S, Farber DB: Sp4 is expressed in retinal neurons, activates transcription of photoreceptor-specific genes, and synergizes with Crx. J Biol Chem 2005, 280(21):20642-20650. 10.1074/jbc.M500957200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Leu S, Ouyang P: Spatial and temporal expression profile of pinin during mouse development. Gene Expr Patterns 2006, 6(6):620-631. 10.1016/j.modgep.2005.11.009.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fossat N, Le Greneur C, Beby F, Vincent S, Godement P, Chatelain G, Lamonerie T: A new GFP-tagged line reveals unexpected Otx2 protein localization in retinal photoreceptors. BMC Dev Biol 2007, 7: 122. 10.1186/1471-213X-7-122.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Oh EC, Khan N, Novelli E, Khanna H, Strettoi E, Swaroop A: Transformation of cone precursors to functional rod photoreceptors by bZIP transcription factor NRL. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2007, 104(5):1679-1684. 10.1073/pnas.0605934104.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Corbo JC, Cepko CL: A hybrid photoreceptor expressing both rod and cone genes in a mouse model of enhanced S-cone syndrome. PLoS Genet 2005, 1(2):e11. 10.1371/journal.pgen.0010011.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kerppola TK, Curran T: Maf and Nrl can bind to AP-1 sites and form heterodimers with Fos and Jun. Oncogene 1994, 9(3):675-684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kumar R, Chen S, Scheurer D, Wang QL, Duh E, Sung CH, Rehemtulla A, Swaroop A, Adler R, Zack DJ: The bZIP transcription factor Nrl stimulates rhodopsin promoter activity in primary retinal cell cultures. J Biol Chem 1996, 271(47):29612-29618. 10.1074/jbc.271.47.29612.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chen S, Wang QL, Nie Z, Sun H, Lennon G, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins NA, Zack DJ: Crx, a novel Otx-like paired-homeodomain protein, binds to and transactivates photoreceptor cell-specific genes. Neuron 1997, 19(5):1017-1030. 10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80394-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chau KY, Chen S, Zack DJ, Ono SJ: Functional domains of the cone-rod homeobox (CRX) transcription factor. J Biol Chem 2000, 275(47):37264-37270. 10.1074/jbc.M002763200.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bowes C, van Veen T, Farber DB: Opsin, G-protein and 48-kDa protein in normal and rd mouse retinas: developmental expression of mRNAs and proteins and light/dark cycling of mRNAs. Exp Eye Res 1988, 47(3):369-390. 10.1016/0014-4835(88)90049-8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lem J, Krasnoperova NV, Calvert PD, Kosaras B, Cameron DA, Nicolo M, Makino CL, Sidman RL: Morphological, physiological, and biochemical changes in rhodopsin knockout mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999, 96(2):736-741. 10.1073/pnas.96.2.736.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Guenther MG, Levine SS, Boyer LA, Jaenisch R, Young RA: A chromatin landmark and transcription initiation at most promoters in human cells. Cell 2007, 130(1):77-88. 10.1016/j.cell.2007.05.042.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Timmers AM, Newton BR, Hauswirth WW: Synthesis and stability of retinal photoreceptor mRNAs are coordinately regulated during bovine fetal development. Exp Eye Res 1993, 56(3):257-265. 10.1006/exer.1993.1034.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar