ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI: hormonal regulation in primary rat hepatocytes and human cell lines
© Sporstøl et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2007
Received: 22 August 2006
Accepted: 22 January 2007
Published: 22 January 2007
Scavenger receptor type B class I (SR-BI), ABC transporter A1 (ABCA1) -and G1 (ABCG1) all play important roles in the reverse cholesterol transport. Reverse cholesterol transport is a mechanism whereby the body can eliminate excess cholesterol. Here, the regulation of SR-BI, ABCA1, and ABCG1 by dexamethasone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) and insulin were studied in order to gain more insight into the role of these two hormones in the cholesterol metabolism.
By use of real time RT-PCR and Western blotting we examined the expression of our target genes. The results show that SR-BI, ABCA1 and ABCG1 mRNA expression increased in response to dexamethasone while insulin treatment reduced the expression in primary rat hepatocytes. The stimulatory effect of dexamethasone was reduced by the addition of the anti-glucocorticoid mifepristone. In HepG2 cells and THP-1 macrophages, however, the effect of dexamethasone was absent or inhibitory with no significant change in the presence of mifepristone. The latter observation may be a result of the low protein expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in these cell lines.
Our results illustrates that insulin and glucocorticoids, two hormones crucial in the carbohydrate metabolism, also play an important role in the regulation of genes central in reverse cholesterol transport. We found a marked difference in mRNA expression between the primary cells and the two established cell lines when studying the effect of dexamethasone which may result from the varying expression levels of GR.
The process in which cholesterol is transported from peripheral cells, including those in the arterial wall, to the liver for excretion is termed reverse cholesterol transport. A key player in reverse cholesterol transport is the high density lipoprotein (HDL). The process can be divided into three stages: 1) the efflux of cellular cholesterol to HDL from peripheral cells, 2) the transport of HDL-cholesterol in blood to the liver, and 3) the delivery of cholesterol esters to hepatocytes from HDL . The delivery of HDL cholesterol esters to the liver is mediated by Scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). SR-BI also mediates selective uptake of HDL-cholesterol esters into adrenals, testis and ovaries [2, 3] and cholesterol efflux to nascent HDL particles from macrophages and other peripheral cells [4, 5]. SR-BI therefore plays an important role in both early and late stages in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway.
ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter A1 (ABCA1), abundantly expressed in the liver and peripheral macrophages among other tissues, mediates the transfer of cellular cholesterol and phospholipids to lipid-poor apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) to form nascent HDL particles [6–12]. ABCG1, another member of the ABC transporter family, has been suggested to be involved in cholesterol efflux to mature HDL and not to lipid-poor apoA-I [13, 14].
Glucocorticoids are among the most widely used agents for the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Glucocorticoids exert their diverse effects through the glucocorticoid receptor, GR. GR belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and functions as a ligand-inducible transcription factor . In the nucleus, activated GR can interact with the regulatory regions of responsive genes to alter the level of gene expression .
The aim of the present investigation was to study the role of the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone in the regulation of ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-BI. Here we show that dexamethasone-treatment increased the mRNA expression of ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-BI in primary rat hepatocytes while an opposite tendency or no response was observed in HepG2 cells and THP-1 macrophages. We suggest that the observed inhibitory effect of dexamethasone is an unspecific/indirect effect since these cells express undetectable levels of GR protein. Moreover, the GR antagonist mifepristone had no significant antagonistic effect in these cell lines. The inhibitory effect of insulin on the mRNA expression was similar in primary rat hepatocytes, HepG2 cells and THP-1 macrophages.
Dexamethasone and insulin exert opposite effects on the mRNA expression of SR-BI, ABCA1, and ABCG1 in primary rat hepatocytes
In HepG2 cells and THP-1 macrophages dexamethasone and insulin have similar effects on the mRNA levels of SR-BI, ABCA1, and ABCG1
In this report, we have examined the regulation of a set of genes important in reverse cholesterol transport. Cells were treated with dexamethasone or insulin and mRNA and protein levels were quantified by use of real time RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The data obtained show that dexamethasone treatment increased the mRNA expression of ABCA1, ABCG1, and SR-BI in primary rat hepatocytes while an opposite tendency was observed in HepG2 cells and THP-1 macrophages. It appears that the stimulatory effect of dexamethasone is specific/direct on the three target genes since it coincided well with the endogenous expression level of GR protein. This conclusion is further supported by the observation that the stimulatory effect of dexamethasone is reversed by the addition of the anti-glucocorticoid mifepristone. The negative effect of dexamethasone in THP-1 macrophages is in agreement with a previous study  indicating that dexamethasone alone reduced while co-transfection with GR alone increased the ABCA1 promoter activity in RAW264.7 and THP-1 macrophages.
By the use of classical Western blotting we were unable to detect any clear change in the protein expression of our target genes. As compared to real time RT-PCR, which can detect small changes in the levels of mRNAs, Western blotting is typically used for qualitative purposes and may therefore not display comparable changes in protein expression. The lack of effect of hormone treatments were nevertheless unexpected as earlier studies have shown that the protein levels of SR-BI respond within 24 hours to PPAR , FXR , and PXR  agonists. The dexamethasone treatment used in the present study should certainly be long enough to induce changes in protein levels. A plausible explanation for the lack of effect may be that it takes time before a detectable amount of protein is accumulated following dexamethasone treatment. This remains to be seen in future studies.
It is well recognized that glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone exerts catabolic actions while insulin exerts anabolic actions in carbohydrate metabolism. The present data show that dexamethasone and insulin may have opposite effects on cholesterol metabolism as well. One of the most important ways for the body to get rid of excess cholesterol is via the reverse cholesterol pathway and this pathway is tightly regulated by hormones and nutrients. Since SR-BI is the major route by which HDL-cholesterol esters can enter into the hepatocytes, and HDL-cholesterol is the preferred substrate for bile acid synthesis , the need for cooperative regulation of SR-BI and CYP7A1 is crucial in order to prevent accumulation of toxic high levels of bile acids. Our results suggest that dexamethasone increases reverse cholesterol transport by increasing genes central in these processes while insulin most likely has the opposite role by reducing the expression of the same set of genes. Moreover, our results are in agreement with a number of reports demonstrating that dexamethasone increases [18–21] while insulin decreases [19, 20, 33, 34] the expression of CYP7A1, the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, in rat liver cells. Also apoA-I expression increases in response to dexamethasone in primary rat hepatocytes as reported in numerous studies [22–27]. Our results show that insulin inhibits the mRNA expression of apoA-I in primary rat hepatocytes. This is in contrast to observations made in previous reports [22, 23]. One study, however, shows that insulin at physiological concentrations and an incubation time of 12 hours inhibits the secretion of apoA-I from rat hepatocytes . ApoA-I regulation by insulin may be affected by dose and time since Masumoto et al  and our results show that 10 nM insulin had an inhibitory effect after 12 and 24 hours, respectively. It appears that increased incubation time (44 or 96 hours) with both physiological and supraphysiological doses [22, 23] switches the effect to be positive suggesting that insulin may have both fast and long term effects on target genes.
In summary, the present results suggest that dexamethasone and insulin have opposite roles in the regulation of genes participating in the reverse cholesterol pathway. It has been demonstrated that dexamethasone increases the internalization of HDL particles in rat hepatocytes  which may result from the increased hepatic expression of SR-BI observed here. Furthermore, the conversion of the accumulated cholesterol to bile acids is stimulated by the increased expression and activity of CYP7A1 [18–21]. This alone would be expected to result in reduced plasma HDL levels, but since the synthesis of apoA-I [22–27] and the mRNA expression of ABCA1 and ABCG1 is increased at the same time, it is not unreasonable to assume that the levels of plasma HDL actually increases. Thus dexamethasone-treatment, at least in short-time studies (24 h), may increase reverse cholesterol transport to get rid of the excess cholesterol and thus result in a healthier lipid profile with increased levels of plasma HDL.
Our work demonstrates that the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone increases the mRNA levels while insulin reduces the mRNA expression of SR-BI, ABCA1, and ABCG1 in primary rat hepatocytes. In the two human cell lines HepG2 and THP-1, however, the effect of dexamethasone was absent or inhibitory, illustrating an important difference in the use of cell lines vs. primary cells in the study of glucocorticoids. We suggest that this difference is a result of the endogenous expression levels of GR as illustrated by Western blotting and the use of the anti-glucocorticoid mifepristone.
Isolation and culturing of primary rat hepatocytes
Rats used in the experiments were treated according to established Guidelines for the Use of Experimental Animals. Primary rat hepatocytes were isolated from adult Wistar rats as described elsewhere . After isolation, cells were grown in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) supplemented with 2 mM L-glutamine, 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin (Bio Whittaker, Europe), and 10% fetal bovine serum (Sigma) (medium A) at 37°C, 5% CO2. After 3–4 hours cells were stimulated with the given concentrations of dexamethasone, mifepristone (RU38486), or insulin (Sigma) in medium containing 0.5% charcoal-treated fetal bovine serum (medium B). Lipoprotein-depleted serum was prepared as described .
Human hepatoma cells, HepG2, were grown in DMEM supplemented with 2 mM L-glutamine, 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin, 1× non-essential amino acids (Bio Whittaker, Europe), and 5% fetal bovine serum (Sigma) (medium A) at 37°C, 5% CO2. After reaching 70–80% confluence, cells were stimulated with the given concentrations of dexamethasone, mifepristone (RU38486), or insulin (Sigma) in medium containing 0.5% charcoal-treated fetal bovine serum (medium B). The human monocyte-like cells (THP-1) were grown in RPMI-1640 supplemented with 2 mM L-glutamine, 100 U/ml penicillin, 100 μg/ml streptomycin (BIO WHITTAKER EUROPE) and 5% fetal bovine serum (Sigma) (medium A). The THP-1 cells were treated with 200 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (Sigma) for 72 hours to induce a macrophage phenotype. After reaching 70–80% confluence, the THP-1 macrophages were stimulated with the given concentrations of dexamethasone, mifepristone (RU38486), or insulin (Sigma) in lipid-depleted medium (containing 0.5% charcoal-treated fetal bovine serum) (medium B).
Quantitative real time RT-PCR
Primers for quantitative real time RT-PCR analysis
Forward primer (5'-3')
Reverse primer (5'-3')
Primary rat hepatocytes, THP-1 macrophages or HepG2 cells were washed twice with phosphate-buffered saline prior to lysis in lysis buffer (20 mM Hepes, 300 mM NaCl, 0.2 mM EDTA, 1.5 mM MgCl2, and 1% Triton X-100) containing 2% phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride. Protein concentrations were determined by BCA protein assay (Pierce) and 25 or 50 μg of cell lysates were subjected to SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on 7.5% or 10% polyacrylamide gels. Proteins were transferred onto nitrocellulose membranes (Millipore, USA) and pre-incubated with 5% skim milk phosphate-buffered saline-0.1% Tween 20 to prevent unspecific binding. Polyclonal rabbit anti-GR (P-20, Santa Cruz Biotechnology), anti-SR-BI (NB 400-104D, Novus Biologicals), anti-ABCA1 (400-105, Novus Biologicals), anti-ABCG1 (36969-100, Abcam), or polyclonal mouse anti-β-actin (AC-74, Sigma) were diluted in 5% skim milk phosphate-buffered saline-0.1% Tween 20 and interacting anti-rabbit or anti-mouse HRP-IgG (Amersham Biosciences) was detected by chemiluminescence ECL blot detection system (Amersham Biosciences). The blots were stripped with the Restore Western Blot Stripping Buffer (PIERCE).
Statistical significance of the data was evaluated by Student's t test. Probability values p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
The present work has been supported by the Research Council of Norway and Norwegian Cancer Society.
- Glomset JA: The plasma lecithins:cholesterol acyltransferase reaction. J Lipid Res. 1968, 9 (2): 155-167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Acton S, Rigotti A, Landschulz KT, Xu S, Hobbs HH, Krieger M: Identification of scavenger receptor SR-BI as a high density lipoprotein receptor. Science. 1996, 271 (5248): 518-520. 10.1126/science.271.5248.518View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Landschulz KT, Pathak RK, Rigotti A, Krieger M, Hobbs HH: Regulation of scavenger receptor, class B, type I, a high density lipoprotein receptor, in liver and steroidogenic tissues of the rat. J Clin Invest. 1996, 98 (4): 984-995.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chinetti G, Gbaguidi FG, Griglio S, Mallat Z, Antonucci M, Poulain P, Chapman J, Fruchart JC, Tedgui A, Najib-Fruchart J, Staels B: CLA-1/SR-BI is expressed in atherosclerotic lesion macrophages and regulated by activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Circulation. 2000, 101 (20): 2411-2417.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fluiter K, van der Westhuijzen DR, van Berkel TJ: In vivo regulation of scavenger receptor BI and the selective uptake of high density lipoprotein cholesteryl esters in rat liver parenchymal and Kupffer cells. J Biol Chem. 1998, 273 (14): 8434-8438. 10.1074/jbc.273.14.8434View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bortnick AE, Rothblat GH, Stoudt G, Hoppe KL, Royer LJ, McNeish J, Francone OL: The correlation of ATP-binding cassette 1 mRNA levels with cholesterol efflux from various cell lines. J Biol Chem. 2000, 275 (37): 28634-28640. 10.1074/jbc.M003407200View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brooks-Wilson A, Marcil M, Clee SM, Zhang LH, Roomp K, van Dam M, Yu L, Brewer C, Collins JA, Molhuizen HO, Loubser O, Ouelette BF, Fichter K, Ashbourne-Excoffon KJ, Sensen CW, Scherer S, Mott S, Denis M, Martindale D, Frohlich J, Morgan K, Koop B, Pimstone S, Kastelein JJ, Genest J, Hayden MR: Mutations in ABC1 in Tangier disease and familial high-density lipoprotein deficiency. Nat Genet. 1999, 22 (4): 336-345. 10.1038/11905View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lawn RM, Wade DP, Garvin MR, Wang X, Schwartz K, Porter JG, Seilhamer JJ, Vaughan AM, Oram JF: The Tangier disease gene product ABC1 controls the cellular apolipoprotein-mediated lipid removal pathway. J Clin Invest. 1999, 104 (8): R25-31.PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Neufeld EB, Demosky SJ, Stonik JA, Combs C, Remaley AT, Duverger N, Santamarina-Fojo S, Brewer HB: The ABCA1 transporter functions on the basolateral surface of hepatocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002, 297 (4): 974-979. 10.1016/S0006-291X(02)02274-XView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang N, Silver DL, Thiele C, Tall AR: ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) functions as a cholesterol efflux regulatory protein. J Biol Chem. 2001, 276 (26): 23742-23747. 10.1074/jbc.M102348200View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Orso E, Broccardo C, Kaminski WE, Bottcher A, Liebisch G, Drobnik W, Gotz A, Chambenoit O, Diederich W, Langmann T, Spruss T, Luciani MF, Rothe G, Lackner KJ, Chimini G, Schmitz G: Transport of lipids from golgi to plasma membrane is defective in tangier disease patients and Abc1-deficient mice. Nat Genet. 2000, 24 (2): 192-196. 10.1038/72869View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Remaley AT, Rust S, Rosier M, Knapper C, Naudin L, Broccardo C, Peterson KM, Koch C, Arnould I, Prades C, Duverger N, Funke H, Assman G, Dinger M, Dean M, Chimini G, Santamarina-Fojo S, Fredrickson DS, Denefle P, Brewer HB: Human ATP-binding cassette transporter 1 (ABC1): genomic organization and identification of the genetic defect in the original Tangier disease kindred. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999, 96 (22): 12685-12690. 10.1073/pnas.96.22.12685PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klucken J, Buchler C, Orso E, Kaminski WE, Porsch-Ozcurumez M, Liebisch G, Kapinsky M, Diederich W, Drobnik W, Dean M, Allikmets R, Schmitz G: ABCG1 (ABC8), the human homolog of the Drosophila white gene, is a regulator of macrophage cholesterol and phospholipid transport. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000, 97 (2): 817-822. 10.1073/pnas.97.2.817PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Wang N, Lan D, Chen W, Matsuura F, Tall AR: ATP-binding cassette transporters G1 and G4 mediate cellular cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoproteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004, 101 (26): 9774-9779. 10.1073/pnas.0403506101PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kino T, Chrousos GP: Glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid resistance/hypersensitivity syndromes. J Endocrinol. 2001, 169 (3): 437-445. 10.1677/joe.0.1690437View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beato M, Sanchez-Pacheco A: Interaction of steroid hormone receptors with the transcription initiation complex. Endocr Rev. 1996, 17 (6): 587-609. 10.1210/er.17.6.587View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Spitz IM, Bardin CW: Mifepristone (RU 486)--a modulator of progestin and glucocorticoid action. N Engl J Med. 1993, 329 (6): 404-412. 10.1056/NEJM199308053290607View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hylemon PB, Gurley EC, Stravitz RT, Litz JS, Pandak WM, Chiang JY, Vlahcevic ZR: Hormonal regulation of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase mRNA levels and transcriptional activity in primary rat hepatocyte cultures. J Biol Chem. 1992, 267 (24): 16866-16871.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Twisk J, Hoekman MF, Lehmann EM, Meijer P, Mager WH, Princen HM: Insulin suppresses bile acid synthesis in cultured rat hepatocytes by down-regulation of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase and sterol 27-hydroxylase gene transcription. Hepatology. 1995, 21 (2): 501-510. 10.1016/0270-9139(95)90113-2PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Trawick JD, Lewis KD, Dueland S, Moore GL, Simon FR, Davis RA: Rat hepatoma L35 cells, a liver-differentiated cell line, display resistance to bile acid repression of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase. J Lipid Res. 1996, 37 (3): 588-598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Trawick JD, Wang SL, Bell D, Davis RA: Transcriptional induction of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase by dexamethasone in L35 hepatoma cells requires sulfhydryl reducing agents. J Biol Chem. 1997, 272 (5): 3099-3102. 10.1074/jbc.272.5.3099View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Elshourbagy NA, Boguski MS, Liao WS, Jefferson LS, Gordon JI, Taylor JM: Expression of rat apolipoprotein A-IV and A-I genes: mRNA induction during development and in response to glucocorticoids and insulin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985, 82 (23): 8242-8246. 10.1073/pnas.82.23.8242PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lin RC: Effects of hormones on apolipoprotein secretion in cultured rat hepatocytes. Metabolism. 1988, 37 (8): 745-751. 10.1016/0026-0495(88)90009-1View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Masumoto A, Koga S, Uchida E, Ibayashi H: Effects of insulin, dexamethasone and glucagon on the production of apolipoprotein A-I in cultured rat hepatocytes. Atherosclerosis. 1988, 70 (3): 217-223. 10.1016/0021-9150(88)90172-4View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saladin R, Vu-Dac N, Fruchart JC, Auwerx J, Staels B: Transcriptional induction of rat liver apolipoprotein A-I gene expression by glucocorticoids requires the glucocorticoid receptor and a labile cell-specific protein. Eur J Biochem. 1996, 239 (2): 451-459. 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1996.0451u.xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Staels B, van Tol A, Chan L, Verhoeven G, Auwerx J: Variable effects of different corticosteroids on plasma lipids, apolipoproteins, and hepatic apolipoprotein mRNA levels in rats. Arterioscler Thromb. 1991, 11 (3): 760-769.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Taylor AH, Raymond J, Dionne JM, Romney J, Chan J, Lawless DE, Wanke IE, Wong NC: Glucocorticoid increases rat apolipoprotein A-I promoter activity. J Lipid Res. 1996, 37 (10): 2232-2243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ayaori M, Sawada S, Yonemura A, Iwamoto N, Ogura M, Tanaka N, Nakaya K, Kusuhara M, Nakamura H, Ohsuzu F: Glucocorticoid receptor regulates ATP-binding cassette transporter-A1 expression and apolipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2006, 26 (1): 163-168. 10.1161/01.ATV.0000193513.29074.52View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Malerod L, Sporstol M, Juvet LK, Mousavi A, Gjoen T, Berg T: Hepatic scavenger receptor class B, type I is stimulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003, 305 (3): 557-565. 10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00819-2View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Malerod L, Sporstol M, Juvet LK, Mousavi SA, Gjoen T, Berg T, Roos N, Eskild W: Bile acids reduce SR-BI expression in hepatocytes by a pathway involving FXR/RXR, SHP, and LRH-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005, 336 (4): 1096-1105. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.08.237View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sporstol M, Tapia G, Malerod L, Mousavi SA, Berg T: Pregnane X receptor-agonists down-regulate hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 and scavenger receptor class B type I. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005, 331 (4): 1533-1541. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.04.071View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schwartz CC, Halloran LG, Vlahcevic ZR, Gregory DH, Swell L: Preferential utilization of free cholesterol from high-density lipoproteins for biliary cholesterol secretion in man. Science. 1978, 200 (4337): 62-64. 10.1126/science.204996View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mayer D: The circadian rhythm of synthesis and catabolism of cholesterol. Arch Toxicol. 1976, 36 (3-4): 267-276. 10.1007/BF00340534View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Subbiah MT, Yunker RL: Cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase of rat liver: an insulin sensitive enzyme. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1984, 124 (3): 896-902. 10.1016/0006-291X(84)91042-8View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bocharov AV, Huang W, Vishniakova TG, Zaitseva EV, Frolova EG, Rampal P, Bertolotti R: Glucocorticoids upregulate high-affinity, high-density lipoprotein binding sites in rat hepatocytes. Metabolism. 1995, 44 (6): 730-738. 10.1016/0026-0495(95)90185-XView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Malerod L, Juvet K, Gjoen T, Berg T: The expression of scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) and caveolin-1 in parenchymal and nonparenchymal liver cells. Cell Tissue Res. 2002, 307 (2): 173-180. 10.1007/s00441-001-0476-9View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fronsdal K, Engedal N, Saatcioglu F: Efficient DNA-mediated gene transfer into prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. Prostate. 2000, 43 (2): 111-117. 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0045(20000501)43:2<111::AID-PROS5>3.0.CO;2-4View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Primer3: . http://frodo.wi.mit.edu/cgi-bin/primer3/primer3_www.cgi
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.