Systematic cloning and analysis of autophagy-related genes from the silkworm Bombyx mori
© Zhang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2009
Received: 13 December 2008
Accepted: 27 May 2009
Published: 27 May 2009
Through the whole life of eukaryotes, autophagy plays an important role in various biological events including development, differentiation and determination of lifespan. A full set of genes and their encoded proteins of this evolutionarily conserved pathway have been identified in many eukaryotic organisms from yeast to mammals. However, this pathway in the insect model organism, the silkworm Bombyx mori, remains poorly investigated.
Based on the autophagy pathway in several model organisms and a series of bioinformatic analyses, we have found more than 20 autophagy-related genes from the current database of the silkworm Bombyx mori. These genes could be further classified into the signal transduction pathway and two ubiquitin-like pathways. Using the mRNA extracted from the silkgland, we cloned the full length cDNA fragments of some key genes via reverse transcription PCR and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). In addition, we found that the transcription levels of two indicator genes BmATG8 and BmATG12 in the silkgland tend to be increased from 1st to 8th day of the fifth instar larvae.
Bioinformatics in combination with RT-PCR enable us to remodel a preliminary pathway of autophagy in the silkworm. Amplification and cloning of most autophagy-related genes from the silkgland indicated autophagy is indeed an activated process. Furthermore, the time-course transcriptional profiles of BmATG8 and BmATG12 revealed that both genes are up-regulated along the maturation of the silkgland during the fifth instar. These findings suggest that the autophagy should play an important role in Bombyx mori silkgland.
The programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically regulated program of cell elimination, which is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotes and plays a very important role in several physiological processes. PCD consists of two major types, apoptosis (type I) and autophagic cell death (type II) . For a long time, autophagy has been described as a form of type II programmed cell death characterized by lysosomal activation and formation of autophagosomes. It is ubiquitous among eukaryotes functioning as a lysosome degradation pathway for recycling cytoplasmic materials especially long-lived proteins [2–4].
The formation of autophagosomes depends on the two ubiquitin-like conjugation systems, Atg8-PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) and Atg12-Atg5-Atg16 systems . To trigger the former system, the C-terminal glycine residue of newly synthesized Atg8 has to be exposed by a cysteine-type endopeptidase Atg4. Subsequently, after being activated by an E1-like protein Atg7, Atg8 is conjugated to PE by a specific E2-like protein Atg3 . In the latter system, Atg12 is activated by Atg7 and then transferred to an E2-like enzyme Atg10, via which conjugated to Atg5. Finally, the Atg12-Atg5 conjugate interacts with Atg16 to form a complex, which is localized to a membrane system to facilitate the maturation of autophagosomes [7–12].
There are several major signal transduction pathways and complexes involved in the induction of autophagy. One of these pathways is mediated by a serine/threonine kinase TOR (target of rapamycin), which takes part in most regulatory pathways in response to the changes in nutrient conditions and energy metabolism. TOR exerts an inhibitory effect on autophagy through various downstream effectors including Tap42 and P70s6 kinase (P70s6K) to regulate the transcription and/or translation of other related genes [13–18]. In addition to TOR, members in PtdIns 3-kinase class I (PI3K-I) and III (PI3K-III) also participate the regulation of autophagy. PI3K-I members phosphorylate PtdIns(4,5)P2 to produce PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, which binds to protein kinase B (Akt/Pkb) and its activator Pdk1 (phosphoinositide dependent kinase 1) [19–21]. The activation of PI3K-I/Akt pathway inhibits the GTPase-activating activity of Tsc2, leading to the relief of the inhibitory effect of Rheb-GDP on TOR/P70s6K signalling [22–26]. Mammalian hormones glucagon and insulin inhibit TOR by down-regulating PI3K-I, and so does ecdysone in D. melanogaster. The PI3K-I/Akt pathway is thought to down regulate the autophagy level, while PI3K-III, together with its membrane adaptor and autophagy protein Atg6 (Beclin1 in mammals), functions as an activator of autophagy and plays a crucial role in the early steps of autophagosome formation [27–32].
Recently, an explosion of studies on autophagy and cell survival indicates that autophagy may play an important role in the life cycle of eukaryotic organism. Autophagy may help cells to survive in death mutants, to crosstalk with the regulation of cell proliferation, to remove toxic cytoplasmic constituents, to reduce neurotoxicity of polyglutamine expansion proteins in some neurodegenerative diseases and also to be required for necrotic cell death. [33–38]. The metamorphic development from larvae to pupa is accompanying with the degeneration of specific larval tissues, such as the salivary glands of Drosophila melanogaster [39–41], intersegmental muscles , prothoracic glands  and silkglands of B. mori .
The silkgland is the largest tissue in the fifth and last instar of the silkworm B. mori. It consists of three parts: anterior (ASG), middle (MSG) and posterior silkgland (PSG). During the prepupal period, silkglands are degenerated via PCD pathway triggered by the steroid hormone ecdysone [44, 46]. Both apoptotic and autophagic morphologies have been observed in the ASG during the larval-pupal metamorphosis, but the connections between them are still unclear [47–49]. The pupal differentiation of silkgland starts on the first day of the fifth instar and cell death in ASG is initiated on the third day . Besides the PCD phenomenon found in ASG, we have also observed autophagic vacuolar formation in MSG during the prepupal period (unpublished data, Cao et al.). These findings indicate that autophagy may play a very important part in the differentiation and degeneration of silkgland, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Thus we performed a genome-wide search of autophagy-related genes in B. mori, aiming at remodelling the preliminary autophagy pathway for further systematic investigations.
Identification of autophagy-related genes in B. mori
Autophagy-related proteins identified from the SilkDB.
Bombyx mori genes
Ubiquitin-like conjugation pathway
E2-like enzyme conjugates Atg8 to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)
Cysteine protease, cleaves C-terminal extension or PE from Atg8
Conjugates to Atg12 through internal lysine
E1-like enzyme activates Atg8 and Atg12
Conjugates with Atg7, Atg3
Conjugates to Atg5 by E1 enzyme Atg7
Protein interacts with Atg12-Atg5
Signal transduction pathway
Relieves the inhibitory effects on TOR through PI3K/Akt pathway
The activator of Akt/Pkb
Protein kinase B, be activated by Pdk1
Forms a complex with Tsc2
Tuberous sclerosis complex 2, induce autophagy by inhibiting TOR
Be negatively regulated by TSC2 and positively regulates TOR
AMP activated protein kinase, stimulates autophagy by inhibiting TOR signal pathway
Rapamycin target and a kinase involved in repression of autophagy
A target of the TOR kinases
Protein phosphatase 2A, functions downstream of TOR
A downstream effector of TOR, positively regulates autophagy
Contributes to the formation of autophagic vacuoles
Component of class III PI3K complexes
Involved in chaperone-mediated autophagy
Ser/Thr kinase, required for autophagy
Required for recycling of Atg9
Transmembrane protein, formation of CVT and autophagic vesicles
Remodelling the autophagy pathway
Most autophagy-related genes are actively transcribed in the silkgland
Furthermore, full-length cDNAs of BmATG3, BmATG4, BmATG6, BmATG8 and BmATG12 have been sequenced and deposited in GenBank under the accession numbers of FJ416327, FJ416326, FJ416328, FJ416330 and FJ416329, respectively. All proteins encoded by these genes are homogeneous to their orthologs in other eukaryotes (for the multialignments of Atg4, Atg6 and Atg5, see Additional file 1), indicating high conservation of the ubiquitin-like pathways in B. mori.
In the SilkDB, we found only a 5' fragment of putative BmATG5. To obtain its full-length cDNA, we used 3' RACE PCR method to amplify the unknown 3' flanking sequences. First-strand cDNA reverse-transcribed with an oligo(dT)-adaptor primer from total RNA was used as the template for 3' RACE PCR with gene specific primer GSP1 and out primer. The 3' RACE PCR product of BmATG5 was inserted into pGM-T vector for sequencing, and then this 3' segment was spliced with sequence of BGIBMGA007878-TA (SilkDB) to obtain the full-length cDNA sequence of BmATG5. The complete coding sequence of BmATG5 (amplified with full-length primers) has been deposited in GenBank under the accession number of FJ418152. Compared with the orthologs in other eukaryotes, BmAtg5 has the two highly conserved Atg16 binding domains (ubiquitin-like folds) and one Atg12 conjugation site (residue Lys149) (see Additional file 1).
Successful amplification of the coding sequences of some key autophagy-related genes listed in Table 1 indicated that they are indeed actively transcribed in the silkgland. Comparison to the orthologs further validated the high level of conservation of the two ubiquitin-like conjugation systems in the silkworm B. mori.
Both BmATG8 and BmATG12 are up-regulated along the maturation of silkgland as revealed by semi-quantitative PCR
Along the metamorphic development from larvae to pupa, some larval organs of B. mori such as the larval midgut, intersegmental muscles and silkglands are degenerated and new imaginal structures are developed. The histolysis of these tissues was proposed to be achieved via programmed cell death and the degradation process in the ASG cells display both autophagic and apoptotic characteristics [44, 46, 58]. However, the B. mori genes or proteins required for autophagy have not been well characterized as those identified from the yeast or human .
In the present work, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis and found 24 autophagy-related proteins as the top hits from the SilkDB (Table 1). All homologs involved in the two ubiquitin-like pathways have been found in B. mori except for Atg10 which has not been identified from other two model insects, neither fruitfly nor honeybee. As well known, the E2-like enzyme Atg10 plays a very important part in transferring Atg12 to Atg5. It remains a puzzle that how the Atg12-Atg5-Atg16 conjugation system works without a functional Atg10. After performing a multiple alignment of the primary sequences of Atg10 against those of E2-like enzyme Atg3 from different species, we found that Atg3 proteins of some insects have low homology to mammalian Atg10. As shown in Additional file 2, both Atg3 and Atg10 have a highly conserved C-terminal catalytic cysteine (marked in blue) which is essential for the conjugation . BmAtg3 might be able to recognize both BmAtg8 and BmAtg12 which share an ubiquitin-like fold and a highly conserved glycine residue at the C-terminal region (Figure 3). Thus we hypothesize that the function of Atg10 could be compensated by Atg3 in B. mori and other lepidoptera insects. Further in vivo experiments, especially identification of the E2-like enzyme of Atg12, are necessary to verify this hypothesis.
Based on these 24 genes and their high degree of conservation to the orthologs identified and functionally characterized in higher eukaryotes [4, 61–63], a preliminary autophagy pathway in B. mori was remodelled (Figure 1). In addition to these in silico analyses, RT-PCR results strongly indicated that autophagy-related genes in ubiquitin-like conjugation systems are indeed actively transcribed in the silkgland. This is in agreement with the previous report that B. mori silkglands are committed to undergo PCD from the 3rd day of the fifth instar and are degenerated completely soon after pupation . To verify the temporal control of this process, we performed a time-course transcriptional profiling of two indicator genes BmATG8 and BmATG12 via semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis. As expected, the transcriptional levels of both BmATG8 and BmATG12 exhibit a general tendency of increase from 1st to 8th day.
As an evolutionarily conserved and finely regulated process, autophagy plays a very important role in various biological events during the whole life of eukaryotes, including the metamorphic development of B. mori. In the present work, we identified over 20 autophagy-related genes and remodelled the autophagy pathway in B. mori. Using the total RNA extracted from the silkgland of the fifth instar larvae on the 3rd day as the initial template, the coding sequences of several key genes were further cloned by reverse transcription PCR and/or 3' RACE PCR experiments, indicating that most autophagy-related genes are actively transcribed in the silkgland. Furthermore, semi-quantitative PCR results indicated that both BmATG8 and BmATG12 are up-regulated in fifth instar larvae of B. mori. Taken together, our findings, in combination with the previous histochemical investigations, evidently suggest that autophagy executes a very important role in the differentiation and degeneration of silkgland during the metamorphosis from larva to pupa.
Databases used for bioinformatic analysis and primers for PCR
RNA extraction, cDNA preparation and PCR validation of some key genes
Total RNA extracted (Trizol, Invitrogen) from the silkglands of the fifth instar larvae at the 3rd day was reverse-transcribed with Super Script III (Invitrogen). Primers were designed according to the sequences downloaded from SilkDB Database. The cDNA prepared from total RNA was used as template for PCR amplification in a volume of 25 μl with corresponding primers. The PCR products were separated on 1.5% agarose gel stained with GelRed.
The 3' end cDNA sequence of BmATG5 was obtained by using 3' RACE PCR with total RNA from mesenteron of B. mori in fifth instar. First strand cDNA was synthesized using an Oligo(dT)-Adaptor primer provided by Takara 3' RACE kit at 42°C for 60 min in a reaction volume of 10 μl. Then the cDNA was amplified using the 3' RACE Outer Primer (TACCGTCGTTCCACTAGTGATTT) and BmATG5 specific primer GSP1 (GGACTTTGACAGTACACTTC) as following procedure: 5 min at 94°C, 35 cycles of 30 sec at 94°C 30 sec at 55°C, 66 sec at 72°C, and then 10 min at 72°C. The PCR product was purified and cloned into pGM-T sequencing vector. According to the sequencing result, we spliced out the full-length sequence of BmATG5 and obtained it using PCR reaction with full-length primers.
Semi-quantitative PCR analysis of BmATG8 and BmATG12
Total RNA from silkgland of each day in fifth instar larvae was reverse-transcribed to cDNA. The cDNAs of the same quantity was used as template for semi-quantitative PCR amplification in a volume of 20 μl with BmATG8, BmATG12 and Actin3 primers (Table 2). Each PCR reaction was performed by preheating the samples at 94°C for 5 min followed by 20 cycles of 94°C for 30 sec, 55°C for 30 sec and 72°C for 40 sec followed by an extra extension at 72°C for 10 min, the PCR products were separated on 1.5% agarose gel. Quantification of the bands was performed by GIS 1D Software (Tanon, Shanghai, China) and band intensities were expressed as relative absorbance units Volume (μg). The ratio of amplified BmATG8 and BmATG12 respectively to Actin3 was calculated for all samples.
We thank Prof. Qingyou Xia at the Key Sericultural Laboratory of Agriculture Ministry, Southwest University of China for providing some RNA samples. This work is sponsored by the Chinese National Natural Science Foundation (Grant 90608027), the Hi-Tech Research and Development Program of China (Grant 2006AA10A119) and the 973 project (Grant 2005CB121002) from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, and the Knowledge Innovation Program from Chinese Academy of Science.
- Abraham MC, Shaham S: Death without caspases, caspases without death. Trends in cell biology. 2004, 14: 184-193. 10.1016/j.tcb.2004.03.002View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mortimore GE, Poso AR: Intracellular protein catabolism and its control during nutrient deprivation and supply. Annual review of nutrition. 1987, 7: 539-564. 10.1146/annurev.nu.07.070187.002543View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klionsky DJ, Emr SD: Autophagy as a regulated pathway of cellular degradation. Science. 2000, 290 (5497): 1717-1721. 10.1126/science.290.5497.1717PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yorimitsu T, Klionsky DJ: Autophagy: molecular machinery for self-eating. Cell Death Differ. 2005, 12: 1542-1552. 10.1038/sj.cdd.4401765PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tanida I, Ueno T, Kominami E: LC3 conjugation system in mammalian autophagy. The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology. 2004, 36 (12): 2503-2518. 10.1016/j.biocel.2004.05.009View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kirisako T, Ichimura Y, Okada H, Kabeya Y, Mizushima N, Yoshimori T, Ohsumi M, Takao T, Noda T, Ohsumi Y: The reversible modification regulates the membrane-binding state of Apg8/Aut7 essential for autophagy and the cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathway. The Journal of cell biology. 2000, 151 (2): 263-276. 10.1083/jcb.151.2.263PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Komatsu M, Tanida I, Ueno T, Ohsumi M, Ohsumi Y, Kominami E: The C-terminal region of an Apg7p/Cvt2p is required for homodimerization and is essential for its E1 activity and E1-E2 complex formation. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2001, 276 (13): 9846-9854. 10.1074/jbc.M007737200View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mizushima N, Yamamoto A, Hatano M, Kobayashi Y, Kabeya Y, Suzuki K, Tokuhisa T, Ohsumi Y, Yoshimori T: Dissection of autophagosome formation using Apg5-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells. Journal of Cell Biology. 2001, 152 (4): 657-667. 10.1083/jcb.152.4.657PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nemoto T, Tanida I, Tanida-Miyake E, Minematsu-Ikeguchi N, Yokota M, Ohsumi M, Ueno T, Kominami E: The mouse APG10 homologue, an E2-like enzyme for Apg12p conjugation, facilitates MAP-LC3 modification. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2003, 278 (41): 39517-39526. 10.1074/jbc.M300550200View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tanida I, Nishitani T, Nemoto T, Ueno T, Kominami E: Mammalian Apg12p, but not the Apg12p center dot Apg5p conjugate, facilitates LC3 processing. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2002, 296 (5): 1164-1170. 10.1016/S0006-291X(02)02057-0. 10.1016/S0006-291X(02)02057-0View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tanida I, Tanida-Miyake E, Komatsu M, Ueno T, Kominami E: Human Apg3p/Aut1p homologue is an authentic E2 enzyme for multiple substrates, GATE-16, GABARAP, and MAP-LC3, and facilitates the conjugation of hApg12p to hApg5p. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2002, 277 (16): 13739-13744. 10.1074/jbc.M200385200View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tanida I, Tanida-Miyake E, Ueno T, Kominami E: The human homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Apg7p is a protein-activating enzyme for multiple substrates including human Apg12p, GATE-16, GABARAP, and MAP-LC3. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2001, 276 (3): 1701-1706.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beck T, Hall MN: The TOR signalling pathway controls nuclear localization of nutrient-regulated transcription factors. Nature. 1999, 402 (6762): 689-692. 10.1038/45287View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Chan TF, Bertram PG, Ai W, Zheng XF: Regulation of APG14 expression by the GATA-type transcription factor Gln3p. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2001, 276 (9): 6463-6467. 10.1074/jbc.M008162200View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fingar DC, Salama S, Tsou C, Harlow E, Blenis J: Mammalian cell size is controlled by mTOR and its downstream targets S6K1 and 4EBP1/eIF4E. Genes & development. 2002, 16 (12): 1472-1487. 10.1101/gad.995802View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Huang WP, Scott SV, Kim J, Klionsky DJ: The itinerary of a vesicle component, Aut7p/Cvt5p, terminates in the yeast vacuole via the autophagy/Cvt pathways. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2000, 275 (8): 5845-5851. 10.1074/jbc.275.8.5845View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jiang Y, Broach JR: Tor proteins and protein phosphatase 2A reciprocally regulate Tap42 in controlling cell growth in yeast. The EMBO journal. 1999, 18 (10): 2782-2792. 10.1093/emboj/18.10.2782PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rohde J, Heitman J, Cardenas ME: The TOR kinases link nutrient sensing to cell growth. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2001, 276 (13): 9583-9586. 10.1074/jbc.R000034200View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Katso R, Okkenhaug K, Ahmadi K, White S, Timms J, Waterfield MD: Cellular function of phosphoinositide 3-kinases: Implications for development, immunity, homeostasis, and cancer. Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology. 2001, 17: 615-675. 10.1146/annurev.cellbio.17.1.615. 10.1146/annurev.cellbio.17.1.615View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Petiot A, Ogier-Denis E, Blommaart EFC, Meijer AJ, Codogno P: Distinct classes of phosphatidylinositol 3 '-kinases are involved in signaling pathways that control macroautophagy in HT-29 cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2000, 275 (2): 992-998. 10.1074/jbc.275.2.992View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Vanhaesebroeck B, Leevers SJ, Panayotou G, Waterfield MD: Phosphoinositide 3-kinases: A conserved family of signal transducers. Trends in biochemical sciences. 1997, 22 (7): 267-272. 10.1016/S0968-0004(97)01061-XView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Baehrecke EH: Autophagy: dual roles in life and death?. Nature reviews. 2005, 6 (6): 505-510. 10.1038/nrm1666View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Garami A, Zwartkruis FJ, Nobukuni T, Joaquin M, Roccio M, Stocker H, Kozma SC, Hafen E, Bos JL, Thomas G: Insulin activation of Rheb, a mediator of mTOR/S6K/4E-BP signaling, is inhibited by TSC1 and 2. Molecular cell. 2003, 11 (6): 1457-1466. 10.1016/S1097-2765(03)00220-XView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klionsky DJ: The molecular machinery of autophagy: unanswered questions. Journal of cell science. 2005, 118 (Pt 1): 7-18. 10.1242/jcs.01620PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hall DJ, Grewal SS, de la Cruz AF, Edgar BA: Rheb-TOR signaling promotes protein synthesis, but not glucose or amino acid import, in Drosophila. BMC biology. 2007, 5: 10- 10.1186/1741-7007-5-10PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yang Q, Inoki K, Kim E, Guan KL: TSC1/TSC2 and Rheb have different effects on TORC1 and TORC2 activity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2006, 103 (18): 6811-6816. 10.1073/pnas.0602282103PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yoshimori T: Autophagy: a regulated bulk degradation process inside cells. Biochemical and biophysical research communications. 2004, 313 (2): 453-458. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2003.07.023. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2003.07.023View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yue ZY, Jin SK, Yang CW, Levine AJ, Heintz N: Beclin 1, an autophagy gene essential for early embryonic development, is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2003, 100 (25): 15077-15082. 10.1073/pnas.2436255100PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Takahashi Y, Coppola D, Matsushita N, Cualing HD, Sun M, Sato Y, Liang C, Jung JU, Cheng JQ, Mule JJ, et al.: Bif-1 interacts with Beclin 1 through UVRAG and regulates autophagy and tumorigenesis. Nature Cell Biology. 2007, 9 (10): 1142-1151. 10.1038/ncb1634PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liang XH, Jackson S, Seaman M, Brown K, Kempkes B, Hibshoosh H, Levine B: Induction of autophagy and inhibition of tumorigenesis by beclin 1. Nature. 1999, 402 (6762): 672-676. 10.1038/45257View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cao Y, Klionsky DJ: Physiological functions of Atg6/Beclin 1: a unique autophagy-related protein. Cell Research. 2007, 17 (10): 839-849. 10.1038/cr.2007.78View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hu GW, Hacham M, Waterman SR, Panepinto J, Shin S, Liu XG, Gibbons J, Valyi-Nagy T, Obara K, Jaffe HA, et al.: PI3K signaling of autophagy is required for starvation tolerance and virulence of Cryptocloccus neoformans. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2008, 118 (3): 1186-1197. 10.1172/JCI32053PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Xavier RJ, Huett A, Rioux JD: Autophagy as an important process in gut homeostasis and Crohn's disease pathogenesis. Gut. 2008, 57 (6): 717-720. 10.1136/gut.2007.134254PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Maiuri MC, Zalckvar E, Kimchi A, Kroemer G: Self-eating and self-killing: crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 2007, 8 (9): 741-752. 10.1038/nrm2239View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Levine B, Kroemer G: Autophagy in aging, disease and death: the true identity of a cell death impostor. Cell Death Differ. 2009, 16 (1): 1-2. 10.1038/cdd.2008.139PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kroemer G, Levine B: Autophagic cell death: the story of a misnomer. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology. 2008, 9 (12): 1004-1010. 10.1038/nrm2529PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Cecconi F, Levine B: The role of autophagy in mammalian development: Cell makeover rather than cell death. Developmental Cell. 2008, 15 (3): 344-357. 10.1016/j.devcel.2008.08.012PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Samara C, Syntichaki P, Tavernarakis N: Autophagy is required for necrotic cell death in Caenorhabditis elegans. Cell Death Differ. 2008, 15 (1): 105-112. 10.1038/sj.cdd.4402231View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jiang CA, Lamblin AFJ, Steller H, Thummel CS: A steroid-triggered transcriptional hierarchy controls salivary gland cell death during Drosophila metamorphosis. Molecular Cell. 2000, 5 (3): 445-455. 10.1016/S1097-2765(00)80439-6View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Farkas R, Sutakova G: Ultrastructural changes of Drosophila larval and prepupal salivary glands cultured in vitro with ecdysone. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology-Animal. 1998, 34 (10): 813-823. 10.1007/s11626-998-0036-7View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee CY, Baehrecke EH: Steroid regulation of autophagic programmed cell death during development. Development. 2001, 128 (8): 1443-1455.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schwartz LM: Insect Muscle as a Model for Programmed Cell-Death. Journal of Neurobiology. 1992, 23 (9): 1312-1326. 10.1002/neu.480230918View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dai JD, Gilbert LI: Programmed cell death of the prothoracic glands of Manduca sexta during pupal-adult metamorphosis. Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. 1997, 27 (1): 69-78. 10.1016/S0965-1748(96)00068-9. 10.1016/S0965-1748(96)00068-9View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Terashima J, Yasuhara N, Iwami M, Sakurai S, Sakurai S: Programmed cell death triggered by insect steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone, in the anterior silk gland of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Dev Genes Evol. 2000, 210 (11): 545-558. 10.1007/s004270000100View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Akai H: The structure and ultrastructure of the silk gland. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 1983, 39: 443-449.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Elmogy M, Iwami M, Sakurai S: Presence of membrane ecdysone receptor in the anterior silk gland of the silkworm Bombyx mori. European Journal of Biochemistry. 2004, 271 (15): 3171-3179. 10.1111/j.1432-1033.2004.04249.xView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goncu E, Parlak O: Morphological changes and patterns of ecdysone receptor B1 immunolocalization in the anterior silk gland undergoing programmed cell death in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Acta Histochem. 2009, 111 (1): 25-34. 10.1016/j.acthis.2008.02.001View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mpakou VE, Nezis IP, Stravopodis DJ, Margaritis LH, Papassideri IS: Different modes of programmed cell death during oogenesis of the silkmoth Bombyx mori. Autophagy. 2008, 4 (1): 97-100.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Goncu E, Parlak O: Some autophagic and apoptotic features of programmed cell death in the anterior silk glands of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Autophagy. 2008, 4 (8): 1069-1072.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reggiori F, Tucker KA, Stromhaug PE, Klionsky DJ: The Atg1-Atg13 complex regulates Atg9 and Atg23 retrieval transport from the pre-autophagosomal structure. Developmental Cell. 2004, 6 (1): 79-90. 10.1016/S1534-5807(03)00402-7View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Noda T, Kim J, Huang WP, Baba M, Tokunaga C, Ohsumi Y, Klionsky DJ: Apg9p/Cvt7p is an integral membrane protein required for transport vesicle formation in the Cvt and autophagy pathways. Journal of Cell Biology. 2000, 148 (3): 465-479. 10.1083/jcb.148.3.465PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Obara K, Sekito T, Niimi K, Ohsumi Y: The Atg18-Atg2 complex is recruited to autophagic membranes via phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and exerts an essential function. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2008, 283 (35): 23972-23980. 10.1074/jbc.M803180200PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dice JF: Chaperone-mediated autophagy. Autophagy. 2007, 3 (4): 295-299.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Reggiori F, Klionsky DJ: Autophagy in the eukaryotic cell. Eukaryotic Cell. 2002, 1 (1): 11-21. 10.1128/EC.01.1.11-21.2002PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kabeya Y, Mizushima N, Yamamoto A, Oshitani-Okamoto S, Ohsumi Y, Yoshimori T: LC3, GABARAP and GATE16 localize to autophagosomal membrane depending on form-II formation. Journal of cell science. 2004, 117 (Pt 13): 2805-2812. 10.1242/jcs.01131View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Corpet F: Multiple sequence alignment with hierarchical clustering. Nucleic acids research. 1988, 16 (22): 10881-10890. 10.1093/nar/16.22.10881PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Gouet P, Robert X, Courcelle E: ESPript/ENDscript: Extracting and rendering sequence and 3D information from atomic structures of proteins. Nucleic acids research. 2003, 31 (13): 3320-3323. 10.1093/nar/gkg556PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kakei M, Iwami M, Sakurai S: Death commitment in the anterior silk gland of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Journal of Insect Physiology. 2005, 51 (1): 17-25. 10.1016/j.jinsphys.2004.10.012View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klionsky DJ, Cuervo AM, Seglen PO: Methods for monitoring autophagy from yeast to human. Autophagy. 2007, 3 (3): 181-206.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yamada Y, Suzuki NN, Hanada T, Ichimura Y, Kumeta H, Fujioka Y, Ohsumi Y, Inagaki F: The crystal structure of Atg3, an autophagy-related ubiquitin carrier protein (E2) enzyme that mediates Atg8 lipidation. The Journal of biological chemistry. 2007, 282 (11): 8036-8043. 10.1074/jbc.M611473200View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Huang WP, Klionsky DJ: Autophagy in yeast: A review of the molecular machinery. Cell Structure and Function. 2002, 27 (6): 409-420. 10.1247/csf.27.409. 10.1247/csf.27.409View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klionsky DJ: The molecular machinery of autophagy: unanswered questions. Journal of Cell Science. 2005, 118 (1): 7-18. 10.1242/jcs.01620PubMed CentralView ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Khalfan WA, Klionsky DJ: Molecular machinery required for autophagy and the cytoplasm to vacuole targeting (Cvt) pathway in S-cerevisiae. Current Opinion in Cell Biology. 2002, 14 (4): 468-475. 10.1016/S0955-0674(02)00343-5View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.